Thursday, 27 January 2011

oil spill effects on alaska

BP Share Blame With Transocean and Halliburton Over Deepwater ...

14 Sep 2010... for their part in Deepwater Horizon explosion and oil spill... Wildlife, businesses, and residential areas all suffered the ruinous effects of the ... Sudan Facing Colonial Threats, Tribal Conflicts, Land Grabbing ...

Water Pollution Statistics

28 Jun 2010 ... A study about the effects of water pollution, undertaken way back in ... In fact, a single oil spill can contaminate thousands of liters of ...

Well Water: The Hidden Problem

It is easily absorbed in ground spills and enters ground water through leaks in ... years to free the ground water environment from the effects of the chemical. ... Odor of gasoline or fuel oiland near gas station or buried fuel tanks ... will increase as development pressures on rural and suburban land continues. ...

What is Environmental Ethics?

Slash and burn techniques are used for clearing the land for agriculture. ... Causes of Overpopulation · Ozone Layer Depletion: Effects and Causes of Ozone ...

Alaska: Afognak Wilderness Lodge - A Visual Celebration

The lodge location is excellent for viewing land and sea mammals. .... They have built a large new museum, using Exxon-Valdez oil-spill funds and they have, ... Alaska State Tree - Sitka Spruce · Effects of Oil Drilling in Alaska ...

Alaska |

Alaska, also known as 'The Last Frontier' and 'The Land of the Midnight Sun', ... The effectsof oil drilling in Alaska are far-fetched and go beyond the .... oil tanker ran aground in Alaska causing the worst oil spill in US history. ...

Why are Birds and Fish Dying (Comments)

13 Jan 2011 ... The oil spill did not cough up as many dead fish as it had done this time ...Ozone Layer Depletion: Effects and Causes of Ozone Depletion ...

Facts About Water Pollution

Marine pollution, acidification of ocean, oil spill and thermal pollution are few of the ... Effectsof Water Pollution · Different types of Water Pollution ...

History of Alaska State

The existence of mankind in Alaska, can be traced back to 16,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C., when the Paleolithic families crossed the Bering Land Bridge and formed settlements in the western parts of Alaska. At this point of time, Alaska was inhabited by the Inuit tribes and a large variety of American Indians. Even today, some of these tribes, like the Athabascans, the Aleut, Inupiat and Yupik exist. Some of the members of these tribes settled in present-day Canada. Studies reveal that the Aleut tribes settled in the Aleutian Islands, about 10,000 years ago.

In 1493, Pope Alexander VI issued a papal bull (letters patent) or Inter Caetera to the Spanish Crown, issuing them a right to all the lands to the west and south of the poles. The Spanish claimed the whole of the western coast of North America. However, the motive behind issuing the Inter Caetera is unclear even today. Several expeditions were sent to claim the coasts, in the name of Spain. However, the Spanish never established any large-sized colonies in Alaska. The prominent among these expeditions were undertaken by Bruno de Heceta and Salvador Fidalgo in 1775 and 1790, respectively.

In the 18th century, the Russians began to regularly travel down to the Aleutian Islands, near the coastline of Alaska. The travelers were basically fur traders and hunters. These expeditions began setting up permanent settlements and trading posts by the end of 1790s.

In some places, the Russian fur traders were able to establish very peaceful relations with the native tribes. However, in some places, the settlers and the tribes engaged in constant conflicts. Skirmishes were prominently seen between the Russians and the Aleut tribes. The Aleut population, however, was significantly wiped out, due to diseases that were brought by the Russians, against which they had no immunity. In the year 1785, a prominent Russian merchant Grigory Ivanovich Shelikhov, landed on the Kodiak Island in Three Saints Bay and established a Russian settlement after slaughtering many of the Koniaga people (residents of Kodiak Island). Some years later in 1790, he hired Alexander Baranov to manage the colony and trade in the region. In order to establish monopoly in fur trade, Baranov started expanding his activities in present-day Sitka. After a few fights with the Tlingit tribe, the settlement of Mikhailovsk was established.

In the meantime, the Russian Orthodox Church had also started sending missionaries across Alaska, to spread Christianity. Alaska, however, did not remain under the dominance of Russia. The British had also, established trading posts and small settlements in Alaska. However, after the third voyage of Captain James Cook, the British became interested in the potential resources of Alaska. Hudson Bay that was incorporated by the British Royal Charter, started expanding its trade into the interiors of Alaska. Even after the Battle of Sitka, the Russians did not fully colonize Alaska and the British and American monopoly in fur trade began to increase.

The only reason that the Russians never fully colonized Alaska was that the trade profits of the Russian settlements were very low and it was difficult to prevent the British and Americans from coming to Alaska. The financial difficulties of Russia promoted the authorities to sell Alaska to United States of America for $7,200,000.

On 18th October, 1867, the flag of United States of America, was raised for the first time in the history of Alaska. This day, later became the Alaska day, for the United States citizens. Alaska became a department of the United States of America from 1867 to 1884. During this time, it was under the jurisdiction of different agencies of the United States of America, namely the Army (1867-1877), the Treasury Department (1877-1879) and the Navy (1879-1884). In 1865, the Western Union company started work on the first telegraph line across Alaska.

In the year 1884, Alaska was converted from a department to a district. During gold rushes of Yukon territory (1896) and Nome (1899), the population and the economy of Alaska expanded. After the construction of the Alaska railroad in 1902, it became more connected to the United States. The copper mining industry, canning and fishing became prominent industries in the 1990s. In 1912, after the Second Organic Act was passed by the US Congress, Alaska became a territory.

During the World War II, three Aleutian Islands were occupied by the Japanese forces. Some of the villagers were taken to Japan as captives. The islands were regained by the United States forces in May 1943, after a bloody struggle and 3,929 casualties. Oil was discovered in the Swanson river basin giving new opportunities to the economy of Alaska. President Eisenhower signed the Alaska Statehood Act (July 7th, 1958) and Alaska became the 49th state of the United States of America on 3rd January, 1959.

Some of the notable incidents in the history of Alaska state are the Good Friday Earthquake (March, 27, 1964), the completion of the Trans-Alaska Fuel Pipeline (1977) and the Exxon Valdez oil spill (1989).

Today, as a part of the United States of America, Alaska has managed to maintain a very different identity from the rest of the states. It is considered to be one the most beautiful states in the country. Indeed, it is a favorite tourist destination. Its beauty attracts visitors not only from within the United States but also from all over the world.

Venus, Could This Be The Earth's Future?

The importance of alternative energies has been expressed time and time again. Many believe that the greenhouse effect is the cause of global warming, and many don't. In order to better understand the subject, studying other planets in our solar system is something to be considered.
In our solar system, Venus is the hottest planet, but it's defiantly not the closest to the sun. One would think that the planet closest to the sun would be hottest, but to the surprise of many, this isn't the case. As a matter of fact, Venus is second closest to the sun, Mercury being the first. The reason to Venus's high temperature is due to the abundant amount of greenhouse gases found on the planet.
The sun gives off radiation, and these rays are absorbed by Venus. Usually, a fair amount of these sun rays would be deflected and sent back out into space. Due to Venus's dense atmosphere, many of the these rays are trapped, and thus causing the planet to warmup (global warming, but on Venus). The vast amounts of Carbon dioxide and acid in the Venus's atmosphere act almost as mirrors that keep in solar rays. Temperatures on Venus can reach up to 870 degrees F making it impossible for any life on earth to survive, well, except some sorts of bacteria.
Greenhouse gases are caused by the burning of fossil fuels, deforesting, automobile exhausts, and the burning of wood. These actions release excessive carbon, and methane, and as a result they, slowly reduce the amount of heat the Earth is able to deflect.
So basically, if we continue to burn fossil fuels, cut down forests, and rely on dirty energy solutions, the earth may end up resembling Venus. Earth can never become as hot as Venus due to the difference in solar position, but it may become hot enough to discourage any life on earth. Higher temperatures means that we run a risk of water evaporating from our planet, which will result in less plants, which means less oxygen, which means less forms of life. In the worst situation, earth will become an inhabitable waste land.
Venus is a good example as to the future of our planet unless actions are taken, we can fairly easily stop our abundant greenhouse gases by taking simple precautions and doing more to utilize clean energies. Our planet is unique in every way, there are billions of planets in the universe, but none like earth. Do your part in keeping our home green. Your Online Eco-Friendly Super Store

What Will Happen If Global Warming Continues?

Though many people believe that global warming is a hoax, something that scientists have invented, it is a fact that we have to accept. There is ample evidence to prove that global warming is a reality that mankind has to acknowledge and take steps to stop it. If global warming is not stopped, it will portend disaster for Earth.
If we do not take steps to stop global warming, it will have an adverse effect on all life forms, including humans. As temperatures on the Earth surface increase, the natural glaciers in the North and South Poles will begin to melt. These glaciers are a source of fresh water to several rivers. Once the glaciers melt, this fresh water will mix with the saline water of the oceans and there will be no drinking water available. Also, animals that live in the Polar Regions will be adversely affected as their habitat will be lost.
As the glaciers melt, tons of water will be emptied into oceans and seas causing the level of the seas to rise. This will end up submerging low lying regions along the coast. Several cities and towns will get flooded, and some countries like the Maldives and Bangladesh will be wiped out. Even large cities like New York will not be saved from the effect of rising sea level.
Th spread of disease is another important issue. As temperatures rise, tropical diseases like malaria will start spreading to subtropical as well as the northern regions. The warm temperatures will facilitate spread of tropical diseases to the rest of the world. Global warming will also have an effect on climate. More hurricanes will strike land and economies of cities and countries will be adversely affected as a result.
Hence, if this trend continues without any stoppage, it will have a far-reaching effect on Earth and its life forms.
About Author:
Kum Martin is an online leading expert in wildlife and energy conservation. He also offers top quality articles like:
Global Warming FactsRecycling Tips

Bio-Refineries - Solution But Still Side Effects

In a report by the World Economic Forum - the future of industrial bio-refineries; 2010- demonstrates that one of the solutions for future fuels, energy, materials and chemicals is using biomass. They state that is will allow us to bridge the gap between economic growth and technologies. Africa is also one of the primary countries mentioned that could invest in this solution.
Bio-refineries, in a nutshell, is to convert biomass (biological materials, such as corn) into fuels, energy, chemicals, feeds and materials. By doing so, we'll move away from fuel-based products to bio-based products, ie: bio-fuels for cars, using succinic acid and polylactic acid instead of petroleum, and using bio-energy.
However, this puts pressure on the agriculture industry to produce biomass. There are a lot of opportunities in this, however if it isn't well management it could do more damage than good. The other aspect is getting the industry going. A lot of large stake-holders and government are a bit hesitant due to the initial capital costs involved for creating the supply chain and infrastructure.
However, it is estimated that US$ 15 billion could be made by 2020 through business opportunities in bio-refineries. A further US$ 90 billion could be made from biomass production. A report from Sanbi estimates that the US could produce 90 billion gallons of bio-fuels to replace oil, which could mean that the US can run on bio-fuels alone from 2030 to 2050. There are various challenges involved, including food security and land use.
Biomass agriculture would increase production and therefore increase fertilizer usage, especially nitrogen fertilizer. Fertilizers are well known for their high carbon footprint and detrimental effects on water supply which could reverse the sustainability of biomass. This could affect countries like Africa, were there are already water shortages.
Land-use is another large primary issue, divided into two areas - Direct Land Use Change and Indirect Land Use Change. The former has a direct effect on ecosystems and carbon emissions. It implies that current land, not used for agriculture, i.e.: forests and ecosystems, be converted into agriculture space. There is a possibility that destroying a forest today for biomass use will create a debt in carbon emissions, but these will be paid back over time, due to the environmental advantages for using biomass instead of petroleum.
However, forests absorb up to nine times the amount of carbon emissions than the production of bio-fuels, not to mention the biodiversity within those ecosystems which will be destroyed in the process. There will also be a large release of soil carbon during the conversion of the land and an increase on deforestation globally.
Indirect Land Use Change has not been fully researched, but has already shown an impact. Developed countries convert their agriculture land for biomass, thereby countries that are still developing have to create agriculture land to compensate for the decrease in food supply. What makes it worse is that a lot of the developing countries, for example Africa, have the highest biodiversity ecosystems which a majority have not been studied and learnt from yet. These countries then tear down their tropical forests to create food that they were getting from other countries.
The World Economic Forum report therefore concludes that it is necessary for government to create a strategy plan that will keep everything in balance, while supporting a growth in the bio-refinery industry. Stake holders need to invest for further research, especially in technology, to advance current systems. Improvements can be made in efficiency, both in agriculture and in the conversion from biomass into bio-products. Bio-refineries is a good road forward to move away from current unsustainable sources, however, there is still a large amount of work needed.
For more articles on agriculture and biodiversity, go to South African Biodiversity Media.

The Impact of the World Food Demand in Africa - Addressing the Land Property Issue

Various factors have contributed to the negative impact of the World Food Demand in Africa. It is important, however, that I first outline the key issues affecting food demand.
Factors such as population growth, increased demand in more resource intensive food and the impact of petroleum prices have conspired in creating the food crises
While food production increased by 1 to 2 per cent in 2008 it was outpaced by a 4 per cent population growth and the trend has not changed. Also the gradual change in diet by so-called newly prosperous populations is regarded by some as the most important factor underpinning the rise in global food crisis.
We also have the situation where the rise in the price of oil has heightened the costs of fertilizers in some instances doubling the price within the six months before April 2008.
Financial speculation including indiscriminate lending and real estate speculation led to a crises two years ago, eroding investment in food commodities. This is coupled with the impact of trade liberalisation, which has ensured that many developing countries have gone from being food independent to being net food importing economies since the 1980s. Africa and other countries are also over time losing out through the use of food crops for producing bio fuels with maize being a good example as well as producing huge amounts of food crops for export rather than local consumption. This is further motivated by the subsidies on bio fuel by the United States and the EU.
The problem as you can see is not necessarily an African creation but more of the effect of globalisation. The global food crisis has renewed calls for the removal of distorting agricultural subsidies in developed countries. Support to farmers in OECD countries totals 280 billion USD annually, which compares to official development assistance of just 80 billion USD in 2004, and farm support distorts food prices leading to higher global food prices, according to OECD estimates.
There is also the issue of a distorted global rice market - Japan is forced to import more than 767,000 tonnes of rice annually from the United States, Thailand, and other countries due to WTO rules. This is despite the fact that Japan produces over 100 per cent of domestic rice consumption needs with 11 million tonnes produced in 2005 while 8.7 million tonnes were consumed in 2003-2004 period. Japan was not allowed to re-export this rice to other countries without approval, but it seems as if this problem is now being addressed.
Can you believe that this rice is generally left to rot and then used for animal feed?
You may call it climate change, but significant crop shortfalls have emanated from natural disasters. Several distinct weather and climate-related incidents have caused major disruptions in crop production in the past few years. This has also led to soil and productivity losses as large areas of croplands are lost year after year, due mainly to soil erosion, water depletion and urbanisation.
Issues of large scale land acquisition
Large-scale acquisition of land has become an issue affecting the availability of land for the development of food crops for local consumption. According to an estimate from the International Food Policy Research Institute IFPRI, between 15 and 20 million hectares of farmland in developing countries have been subject to transactions or negotiations involving foreign investors since 2006.
Developing countries in general, and Sub-Saharan Africa specifically, are targeted because of the perception that there is plenty of land available, because its climate is favourable to the production of crops, because the local labour is inexpensive and because the land is still relatively cheap.
In 2003, the FAO estimated that an additional 120 million ha - an area twice the size of France or one-third that of India - will be needed to support the traditional growth in food production by 2030. Since about 95% of the cropland in Asia has already been utilized, it is in Latin America and in Africa where most of the demand for increased arable land will concentrate.
The development of large-scale land leases or acquisitions can be explained by
  • The rush towards the production of agro fuels as an alternative to fossil fuels, a development encouraged by fiscal incentives and subsidies in developed countries;
  • The growth of population and urbanization, combined with the exhaustion of natural resources, in certain countries, who therefore see large-scale land acquisitions as a means to achieve long-term food security;
  • Increased concerns of certain countries about the availability of freshwater, which in a number of regions is becoming a scarce commodity;
  • Increased demand for certain raw commodities from tropical countries, particularly fibre and other wood products;
  • Expected subsidies for carbon storage through plantation.
It is clear the food crisis is not just an issue of land and property rights. Many issues have to be looked at, especially the waste in developed countries, subsidisations, and trade restrictions.
The need for more land is obvious, and it seems the world is focusing on Africa and Latin America and every effort has to be made to stem the frightening trend where Africa's land is targeted by the rest of the world in its new found quest to acquire land for production of crops that do not end up feeding our hungry people but serve as raw material for new technologies such a bio fuels.
There is no doubt that land tenure and property rights in Africa are complicated. In an address at the African Presidential Roundtable in Berlin last year I mentioned that "during my time as President in Ghana we had a rude awakening". Despite all the debates we realised that land issues and land tenure circumstances in Ghana was in a terrible mess. We found that a plurality of land tenure and management systems (i.e. state and customary) prevailed in the country, but that these systems were poorly articulated and increasingly caused problems of contradiction and conflict.
We furthermore found that, in spite of some positive achievements - including the introduction of maps, deeds and registry systems, and the release of land for public infrastructure purposes like schools, hospitals and roads - the practical benefits of the Lands Commission and other delegated authorities to the silent majority (i.e. the rural, peri-urban and urban poor, the disabled, the unemployed, the low and middle-income earners, etc.) were not evident.
It also became evident that interventions by the Lands Commission, such as compulsory acquisition of land and non-payment of compensation, have resulted in social unrest, displacement of villagers, and landlessness in affected communities.
Land administration in Ghana is bedeviled with the multiple sale of parcels of land by different parties claiming ownership of the same parcel of land, the poor use of compulsory acquisition powers by government agencies to acquire various tracts of land for which they are unable to pay compensation, weak management, both public and customary, and quite recently, the menace of land guards. As of July 2004, there were about 66,000 land disputes before the courts, resulting from the inability of traditional or customary authorities to identify the extent of land boundaries.
The foundation for reform - National Land Policy
Against the background of these problems the NDC government began the process of developing a comprehensive land policy for Ghana in 1994, which culminated in the launch of the National Land Policy document, the recommendations of which were to be implemented over a period of 15 years, in three, five-year phases. The implementation of the recommended policy actions in the National Land Policy led to the development of the Land Administration Project (LAP).
Land Administration Project (LAP) and other developments since 1999 The NDC government envisaged a 15-year programme to sort out the mess of land tenure in Ghana. When the NPP took control in 2001 they either did not realise the severity of the problem or ignored the reform initially because it was NDC initiated. Nevertheless, the following developments en route to sorting out the mess have taken place, and the initial timeframe has now moved to 15 - 25 years.
Land Administration Project (LAP)
The Land Administration Project (LAP-1) is the first phase of a commitment by the Government of Ghana to use the Land Administration Programme to reduce poverty and enhance economic/social growth by improving security of tenure, simplifying the process of acquiring land by the populace, developing the land market and fostering prudent land management by establishing an efficient system of land administration, both state and customary based on clear, coherent polices and laws supported by appropriate institutional structures.
The project has multi-donor support with development partners including the International Development Association, Nordic Development Fund (NDF), Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID). The rest are German Bank for Reconstruction (KFW).
The successful implementation of LAP is anticipated to lead to the establishment of a sustainable system of land administration that would ensure:
  • A clear, coherent and consistent set of land administration policies and laws;
  • An efficient and decentralized land administration system operating throughout Ghana in accordance with Government policy and compatible with cultural usage and responsive to the needs of the people, within a self financial mechanism;
  • The attainment of high-level confidence of the community, based on a culture of transparency, responsiveness and services;
  • A disciplined, efficient and transparent land market;
  • All land rights are unambiguously recognised, adequately demarcated and securely registered;
  • An environment where land disputes are managed and minimized by open and rapid resolution processes;
  • That land sector agencies and traditional authorities are fully integrated, appropriately structured and resourced, accessible and self-financing;
  • That access to land and settlement is orderly, economical and transparent, and based on a fully coordinated process of land development;
  • That land related information is current, accurate, universally available and shared. This is of great significance to the country, and
  • That traditional authority has the capacity to manage their lands in a very efficient manner and is accountable to their communities as trustees of the land.
We live in a global world and the fortunes of our continent are inextricably linked to developments in other parts of the world, but it is becoming increasingly clear that our continent's vulnerability has been worsened by the attractions of 'quick money' and sharp practices where the sale of lands for the production of newly found industrial crops is killing our ability to sustain food crop production.
As in the Ghana example land security has been tackled to a significant degree even though there have been distortions in the recent past with the wanton sale of lands for fancy and luxury residential accommodation, which have led to open disputes between traditional authority and government.
It is important that African countries legislate urgently on the mode of acquisition of land and address concerns on what such land purchases are meant for. If we continue to maintain the antiquated status quo where purchases of large tracts of land are not queried, sooner than later the allure of easy money will see all our prime and arable lands sold either for property development, as is the craze in Ghana or for the production of crops to satisfy the developed world's demand.
The allure of capital from such land sales is surely a difficult one to ignore but like the developed world we need to employ some protectionist policies to save our continent from a new form of colonization.
Thank you.
Jerry John Rawlings is a Former President of Ghana who is still actively involved in promoting probity, accountability and transparency on the African continent.

Absorbing Environmental Damage

Absorbent pads are typically used to clean up spills in a particular environment. An oil spill is the spread of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. Oil spills often occur in offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, and other industrial establishments which involve the use of large amounts of the substance. Dealing with oil spills can be done effectively with the use of absorbent pads.
The occurrence of a spill from industrial establishments can produce a number of untoward effects in the environment. The entry of chemical pollutants and runoff in a community's water supply in the event of a spill would present serious health and environmental hazards. Planning for and preventing these hazardous spills is therefore essential. Establishments that produce or work with these materials should consider which best drain protection their facilities would require. Cleaning up with the use of absorbent pads can go a long way in keeping the environment safe from the harmful effects of oil spills.
For instance, the materials of the spill tend to penetrate into the constitution bird feathers. And since birds have the habit of preening, they often ingest the oil that is on their feathers, which in turn leads to digestive tract irritation, altered liver function, and kidney damage. Oil in bird's feathers also diminishes their flight capabilities, as well as their ability to escape from predators and forage for food.
In responding to an oil spill, the immediate concern is to minimize the overall impact the spill may have on natural and economic resources. The various types of resources and their degree of importance will affect the kind of response options to be used. Moreover, the general impact of the oil spill would have to be determined as well.
The process in selecting the appropriate response methods should take into account the potential of each method to minimize the environmental consequences of the spill. The result of this selection should be the implementation of the particular method that reduces consequences in the given situation most effectively. The environmental consequences of a spill generally depend on the particulars of the spill that occurred. Some of these would be as the type and amount of oil, the area in which where the spill occurred, weather conditions, and the effectiveness of the response methods that are used. It is crucial that those involved in the planning and cleaning efforts should discuss and develop the various resource protection priorities. As much as possible this should be included in during contingency planning, to limit any time that may be lost during the actual response.
The pursuit of maintaining safety, productivity and cleanliness in the workplace should remain a top priority for establishments. In this regard, DAWG has endeavored to provide products and services over the course of more than twenty years. From its beginnings as a small spill control company, DAWG has become a large multi-brand supplier of products which are specially made for industrial safety, personal protection and building maintenance. DAWG offers a variety of oil absorbent pads that provide security and protection specific to a particular establishment
DAWG is a leading provider of Oil Absorbentsfirst aid kits, spill containment units, face masks and drum liners. We specialize in keeping your facility cleaner, safer and more productive.

Top Industries Affected by Oil Spills

The Top industries which will be affected by any oil spills will largely be dependent upon where in the world that the it takes place, as well as whether or not it makes landfall. Generally the fishing industries will take some of the first hits to their livelihood, while the cleanup crews will gain ground in their own. The fish processing areas and industries will also take a hit, while the tourist industry will likely suffer if there is any chance that the oil will come close to land or touch it.
The oil companies themselves will be deeply affected by the spill, having lost a large percentage of the funding that the oil should have brought in, as well as many millions of dollars to sustain the cleanup efforts and pay for damages. Other oil companies as well as the responsible parties will also see some effect from the oil spills as a sort of backlash effect, and in part because some have made contributions to the clean-up efforts.
In all likelihood, the monetary losses will be in the billions of dollars before a large oil spill has been cleaned effectively enough to halt the efforts. In past oil spills, tourist areas, fishing, canning and other industries which depended on the fish for their own livelihood have suffered devastating losses. The placement of this oil spill makes it uncertain whether or not it will touch land in any areas that are prone to large tourist populations. In many such large oil spills, the damages that the oil causes to the marine life, the fishing industry and many others have lasted for several years.
O'Neil is a eager internet newbie in the art of writing articles. His newest interest is in girl games. So come visit his recommended where you can play girl games. You can venture it his most popular section of games, Y8 Dress Up.

Technology - Meaning and Effects on Life

Technology was coined from the Greek word technologia, which refers to a "skill" or an "art". It simply refers to the utilization and cognition of techniques, tools or methods of organization. It could also mean the in-depth analysis of a concept or the proper knowledge of a field or subject area. The use of the word is relative, and can be applied to as many areas as possible. Mobile technology, car technology, medical technology, space technology and a host of other terms have been coined from the word. This is because the application of the word is limitless in the present world.
The impact of all the different technologies on humans is very significant. Technology started with the transformation of natural resources into elementary hand tools. Fire, for instance, played a great role in the advancement of prehistoric technology. Its discovery and control was the beginning of the many and has escalated to inexplicable heights like the internet today. It is pertinent to note that not all advancements in the field have fostered peace and made life easier. Nuclear weapons and their likes are of course, utterly destructive.
All the great economies in the world today depend on technology. It is safe to assume that they would not get this far but for technological advancements. There is also the issue of pollution and the depletion of natural resources as a result of processes that utilize technology. This reduces the quality of the earth and the value of the environment in general. Interestingly, recent studies have discovered that other primates carry out activities that point to an understanding of basic technology.
Lots of debates have arisen over the years and they have centered on the impact of technology on the society. Some movements totally condemn the concept with overwhelming evidence and conviction. Different scholars and philosophers read different meanings into it and extend its definition to cover a broad range of usage. This has made science, technology and engineering overlap in their meanings and applications. The history of technology also makes for interesting reading as it dates back to 10,000 BC. It has evolved from the usage of basic tools to the development of all the crucial sectors in the life of man. Medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, communication and education, to mention a few, have benefited immensely from this mind-boggling concept.
The view on technology cannot be uniform. It always differs from scholar to scholar and from individual to individual. Where uniformity lies however, is in the fact that technology has come down a long, winding way, and that it is here to stay.
Do you want to read more, visit us at
Do you want to know the latest in technology arena? Then you are in the right place. At damisa technologies, we bring you the latest emerging technology news. Not only are we informative, we also advise you on what technology is best for you and your environment. Visit us today at for more articles and news.

The Effects Of Environmental Degradation

One of the biggest threats that the environment faces today is environmental degradation. This degradation is taking place at a frightening rate. However, many of you must be wondering what is environmental degradation. It is a process where the natural environment is so severely affected that the biodiversity of the region is adversely affected. It is basically the deterioration of nature through human activities like deforestation, pollution and industrialization. However, even some natural processes can cause environmental degradation.
One of the main reasons for environmental degradation is human activity. Rampant burning of fossil fuel and deforestation are major causes of this degradation. Also, over hunting, expansion of residential areas, increasing population and industrialization are degrading the environment beyond repair. The toxic chemicals let out by industries end up contaminating the water bodies. This, in turn, makes the water bodies polluted and the water is not fit for drinking or irrigating land. Also, greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, are contributing to the gradual warming of the planet, a process known as global warming. This warming is having a negative impact on the climate and we can observe climate change everywhere. Agricultural activities are wreaking havoc with the environment. Agriculture is leading to degradation of the soil and contamination of ground water due to excessive use of chemical fertilizers.
The only way to stem environmental degradation is through sustainable means. In order to stop the use of fossil fuels, we should resort to using alternative sources of energy like solar energy or wind energy. Rather than using chemical fertilizers, we should start using organic fertilizers and look for other organic means to make the soil more productive. It is in our hands to stop the irreversible damage that is taking place and we should look for means to stop it. Once the reasons for environmental degradation have been identified, steps should be taken to eliminate them.
About Author:
Kum Martin is an online leading expert in wildlife and energy conservation. He also offers top quality articles like:
Global Warming FactsRecycling Tips

HOME » News and Society » Environmental Floating Booms - The Solution For Containing Oil Spills in Rivers, Lakes, Harbors, and Along Shore

Oil floats on water. So when you need to contain an oil spill, a floating boom is the obvious answer. But which boom is the right one for the job?
Fortunately, it's not that difficult to figure out which one to get. Floating booms come in various types, each of them designed for different types of environments.
For example, there are booms for calm waters, and others for rough waters. And then, there are booms for shallow bodies of water, while others are perfect for the open ocean and harbor areas.
For calm and protected waters, including marinas and inland waterways, the EconoMax Oil Spill Containment Boom would be a great choice. It's particularly useful if you need to contain not just oil but also debris. Its compact size and light weight as well as its comparatively low price point make it a no-brainer to have on hand in case of an emergency.
Even better, its flat foam panels can be folded so it's easy to store in boats and vehicles. This way, it's easy to have them handy if it should be needed to contain a spill.
This boom also has handles as well as anchor points. You may also want to get some accessories, including reflectors, lights, anchors, carry bags, and repair kits.
If you're dealing with calm and very shallow waters, a better choice might be the Super Swamp Containment Boom. It's even lighter in weight and can be transported with ease. It has a cylindrical foam float and a galvanized ballast chain, as well as sturdy aluminum quick connectors.
If you need to protect shorelines or coastal areas, you will need something a little sturdier. The Simplex Oil Booms are the perfect floating booms for the job. In fact, it's the industry standard for oil containment booms.
Finally, if you're dealing with fast currents, you should consider Optimax I or II Floating Booms. Not only can they withstand fast currents, but they are also ideal for long term deployment.
Want to know more about floating booms? Get valuable tips and the latest news about absorbents and other environmental safety products on Travis Zdrazil's Safety Maintenance News blog and get his free newsletter too. Travis is an expert on environmental safety products and has supplied businesses with products to aid in meeting EPA and OSHA requirements for more than 10 years.
You may publish this article, but must keep the resource box ©2009 PCI Products Company. All rights reserved.

The Devastating Effects of Water Pollution

The effects of water pollution to a body of water can be devastating to the environment, the people and animals that depend on that source of water. The effects of water pollution vary greatly depending on what type of pollutant is involved and how large the body of water is. The more severe effects of water pollution is caused due to garbage and chemicals being dumped either legally or ilegally into bodies water that are near major metropolises,
One of the most troubling and serious effects of water pollution is the death of the marine life that reside in the water ecosystems due to the depletion of oxygen. Fish, birds, and dolphins have been found dead on beaches, a casualty of the effects of water pollution. The effects of water pollution of this type adversly affects the food chain from the tiniest micro organisms'right up to humans. These people can be infected with many diseases such as hepatitis and others as a result of eating fish that have been poisoned from polluted waters. This also effect fishermen and their livelihood.
The resulting mess when trash and debris are thrown into bodies of water, can cause foul odors, as well as toxicity. Fertilizers and oil also causes trouble in bodies of water by choking out vegetation that is vital to a healthy water system leading to green slimy waters, dead fish and unpleasant smells. The quality of our daily life could also reflect the effects of water pollution.
Water is vital for so many aspects of daily living such as drinking, showering, washing clothes, and much more. When the water sources that are so heavily relied upon to maintain basic necessities are threatened by pollution it causes a lot of problems and trouble. It costs a lot of time, resources and money to treat a polluted water for reuse. The habits of the people all around the world is directly affected by the quality of the water.
The effects of water pollution are also felt keenly by those who live near the water and all who enjoy water recreations. Polluted rivers, streams, and lakes cause a decline in fish populations and limit activities that can be enjoyed in and around the water. A body of water can be a host for the E Coli bacteria when it's polluted with animal and human waste, which can adversely affect people and make them very sick. Overall the effects of water pollution is recreational, water can cost a lot of money and limit the enjoyment of the waters.
Peter Bankss
Get a Free Report on Simple Steps To Reduce Pollution Now [].

Sell Structured Insurance Settlement - How the Gulf Oil Spill Can Help Increase Your Lump Sum

When a person decides to sell structured insurance settlement it is the first step in what could be a very long journey if the proper steps aren't taken. This journey could be greatly reduced if a few key things are done to maximize the effectiveness of the whole experience. When it comes to receiving a lump sum payment for your cash asset there are lessons that can be learned from the latest oil spill on the Gulf Coast that can help you get more money when and if you decide to sell.
By now you've probably heard about the massive oil spill that has taken place off the Gulf Coast of the United States. Reports say that an oil well ruptured resulting in several million gallons of its contents to spill in the ocean. The well is owned by BP and now they as well as the Environmental Protection Agency are scrambling to find a solution that will put an end to this disaster. When you become interested is trying to sell structured insurance settlement you can take some queues from this tragedy to help bolster your leverage and likelihood of seeing a huge payday.
The first lesson you can take from this disaster is knowing the importance of proper preparation. You don't want to find yourself scrambling for answers at the very moment you need them. Instead, you want to already know what you need to know before you need to know it. By this I mean you should know the specifics of your case before you start calling around looking for free lump sum quotes. You should know things like what insurance company is paying you, how often, and for how long they will be doing so. This will ensure you start off on the right foot when looking to sell structured insurance settlement.
The second lesson that can be taken from this Gulf oil spill is the importance of speed. You see, with each passing day that the spill remains, BP is losing money at a rate that will ultimately add up to several billion dollars. The faster they can put an end to the spill the faster they will stop losing money. This rings true for your case too because in the settlement buying business the longer you take to provide the necessary documentation pertaining to your case, the less money you will see in a lump sum when you sell structured insurance settlement.
The third lesson is the importance of being thorough. Just like this oil spill could have long lasting effects on the environment if not properly handled, the mishandling of your case could have long lasting effects on your bank account. That's why it is very important to work with a reputable organization when selling your asset. It is crucial that you do your due diligence and check into the reputation and business practices of the company you may ultimately decide to sell structured insurance settlement to. Following these 3 lessons from the Gulf oil spill can help make sure you get a larger lump sum amount.
Are you looking to sell structured insurance settlement? Visit us today at to receive a Free Lump Sum Quote as well as a Free Gift just for allowing us to speak to you.

You Can No Longer Ignore The Effects Of Global Warming

The effects of global warming are to vast to simply ignore and now is the time to begin thinking about what each of us can do to help stop this growing problem.
Ignoring global warming will do nothing and the problem will continue to spiral out of control. It takes a great effort to get this type of scenario under control and you may not be fully aware of the devastating effects that it can cause.
The weather patterns are becoming more and more sporadic and this is something that is troubling to many scientists. If the weather is more unstable, then more disastrous weather is bound to occur.
This causes hurricanes, tornadoes and other weather problems that are getting stronger every year as the weather patterns continue to change.
Another effect of global warming is the rising sea levels that seem to be occurring everywhere.
If this sea level continues to rise, there could be many problems that do not only affect coastal cities and states, but also inland residents. This is a problem that can only be slowed with effort on everyone's part.
The deserts are also growing at a staggering rate and this is another of the effects of global warming. It is up to everyone to take it seriously and make the changes that are going to count.
You cannot rely on someone else to do this for you as each human can make some small changes that can make a big difference for future generations.
George Gibson asks the question Are you interested in Going Green and helping the environment? His goal is to save you months of research AND thousands of dollars. Visit his site and you will find lots of great information on going green and helping the planet.

What Could Be Worse Than the Gulf Oil Spill?

I have been hearing practically non stop about the Gulf oil spill, as I'm sure we all have. After all it's a devastating event for the environment, the wildlife, the vegetation, not to mention the people living and making a living in those areas. It's terrible as it is sad. My heart goes out to anything and anybody effected.
But it got me thinking. And after doing some reading and a little research. I found something as bad and probably much worse than the Gulf oil spill. That's hard to believe huh? Well, what I found out is that the bigger problem is right under our noses. It's around us day and night, 24/7/365. Any ideas what this invisible demon might be? It's more obvious than you might think. It used to be "in the news" a lot more.
Okay, enough suspense.
The ongoing disaster that's worse than the oil spill is....air pollution. That's right. Air pollution causes more damage, effects more of the environment and devastate more lives than the oil spill ever will.So far the estimated amount of oil spilled over the past 110 days is about 126 million gallons, but this is not the first devastating oil spill in history and it won't be the last. Remember the Exxon Valdez that dumped 11 million gallons of heavy crude oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound in 1989? Or when the rig over the Ixtoc 1 well in Mexico's Bay of Campeche exploded and sank; 140 million gallons of oil poured into the Gulf over the next 10 months.
The present spill and those that occurred over the last 30 years have been the worst peacetime oil spill, but they are dwarfed by the 460 million gallons spilled into the Persian Gulf when Saddam Hussein's retreating troops sabotaged wells, tankers, and storage facilities in 1991.
The reason I point all this out is to point this out. Remember I said that the BP spill is at 126 million gallons in over 2 months? The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) estimates that "the country disgorges that much hydrocarbon pollution to the air in 10 days." By burning fossil fuels in cars, power plants and factories, we fill the air with dangerous poisons. Poisons like carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, volatile organic compounds and microscopic grit. This in turn causes multiple ailments such as heart desease and defects effecting everyone from babies to the elderly.
So, when we hear about the oil spill in the Gulf and we get angry with BP, the Government or whoever. Remember what we are doing to ourselves everyday without nearly as much concern. I guess seeing it and hearing about it makes all the difference.
Walter Wilson
Walter Wilson
Walter is an online business owner and a network marketer. He works closely with some of the top online earners out there. He has a blog where he posts most of his material before dispersing it to the web. His blog URL is: Walter also is interested in working with anyone who wants to take their business to the next level. His business URL is:

Global Warming Causes And Effects

Do I need to elaborate things further? Do I have to tell you that we are all on the verge of mass mortal peril because of the global phenomenon called Global Warming continuously manifesting its wrath to the planet? Of course I do. While the effects are imminent, there are still thousands of idiots who don't believe it and still pushes the usage of those things that makes it all much more difficult for us. How come they don't know these things? The answer is, it's not that they don't know it, matter of fact, they knew it very well but the problem is it is either they branded it with the label "hoax" or they are just too busy living their life struggling to continuously provide them with the comfort that they are experiencing right now that they refuse to believe that it is happening. Remember, refusal to believe things means you are afraid of it. That is why you don't believe it or force yourself to believe that it isn't true. It makes a lot of sense if I say it like this.
How do you solve this problem? This is very simple. To solve it you must learn more about it. You must truly understand the cause, the effect and everything in between. A better of understanding of the problem, the cause of the problem and other stuff between that would lead to better and lasting solutions. Therefore, if you want to know how to solve the global warming problem, you must learn more about it. Now, don't you just Google it yet. Just read further down below.
The planet Earth naturally has carbon gases on its atmosphere. The amount of it present on the atmosphere is just enough to serve a certain purpose. These gases locks in the heat of the sun but only in sufficient amounts that is enough for every living being on the planet to survive the night. Without this process, we would all die of cold when nighttime comes.
But because of man's continuous effort on pushing technology further to create brand new comforts for men, fossil fuel became the most widely used mineral in the planet. Used for fuel and energy and other methods. These minerals produce byproduct, carbon gases. These would then add up to the already sufficient amount of carbon on the atmosphere, pushing the notch up, way beyond the limit, thus, trapping in more heat. As a result, the global temperature rises and these alone, just a little step up the normal global temperature spells disaster: molten glaciers, rise on the sea level, freak typhoons and hurricanes, and other natural calamities. These are all results of the rise in the global temperature.
If we don't act now, we would then enter into a phase in which the damage that we have done is no longer reversible. That means, it's all over for us. We would soon see the gradual but violent destruction of the planet before our very eyes.
Interested in the Consequences of Global Warming?
All about global warming, visit now =>

Surviving the Oil Spill

In the midst of the latest devastating oil spill disaster, there has been much discussion about the effects of the toxic oil to the environment. There has also been discussion about the many innocent hardworking Americans who live on the Gulf coast that have lost their jobs and businesses due to decreases in tourist spending. The other topic frequently debated is about the workers of the defective oil rig that have lost their jobs. Although there has been some compensation to a few of the victims affected by the oil spill, not nearly enough to get their lives back to normal.
The effects of the oil spill can be felt from the coast of Texas all the way to the coast of Florida. If you are a victim of the recent oil spill debacle, you may be wondering what you need to do to ensure that your rights and livelihood are protected. You could put in a claim to be compensated for some of your losses, but the likeliness that you will receive any significant reimbursement when filing independently is very low. In the long run, it is much more effective to find an attorney that will be able to seek those responsible for this situation and make them pay for the stress and loss of income that you have incurred. Those fighting for damages with an attorney are much more likely to receive a fair return of income than those combating the big oil companies alone. Most normal hardworking Americans don't know their rights or energy business law, and that is why it is important to find an advocate that is educated and has expertise with energy business law. If you live in the Dallas/Fort worth Texas area, there are Fort Worth oil rig accident lawyers who are experienced in protecting the victims of oil rig disasters and standing up to the big oil companies. Those responsible need to pay for the destruction done to the gulf coast and its residents; finding a good lawyer to represent you during this rough time will guarantee that you get what you deserve.
Ms. Smith attends the University of Texas at Austin and is currently a fourth year, Pre-Law student. She is interested in having her own practice in personal injury and learning about Texas Law. Currently, she is interested in studying the legal practices of Texas personal injury lawyers and Fort Worth trucking accident lawyers.

20Th Century Disasters - The Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill And The Baia Mare Cyanide Spill

We humans have a seemingly insatiable demand for oil and other natural resources. Aside from the direct damage that we are doing to the Earth in the pursuit of these resources we are also indirectly inflicting a phenomenal amount of damage on our planet.
Between 1978 and 200 there were several far reaching catastrophes that had significant effects on our environment. One was the Amoco Cadiz oil spill, the other the Baia Mare cyanide spill.
The Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill
Well before anyone ever heard of either the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico or the Exxon Valdez, in 1978 while crossing the English Channel an oil tanker ruptured its tank when it went aground on the rocks. Then, before any help could arrive, a storm broke loose and tore the ship apart. As a result, the Amoco Cadiz lost its entire load of 68 million gallons of oil into the waters off the coast of Brittany, France.
Like more recent oil spills, it was difficult to clean up the Amoco Cadiz disaster because the seas were violent. The resulting oil slick, estimated to be eighty miles long and eighteen miles wide, killed 300,000 birds and contaminated approximately two hundred fifty miles of coastline.
Scientists saw entire species being wiped out. A study that was published by the National Research Council stated that clams, urchins, and other bottom dwelling creatures suffered "massive mortality." In addition several fish species growth rates slowed significantly.
A lot of the oil from that spill invaded protected marshes and did not easily degrade. Researchers' estimates indicated that it would be decades before the ecosystem would once again attain its pre-spill level. By the turn of the 21st century animal populations were still feeling the effects of the spill.
The Baia Mare Cyanide Spill
Thirty days into the new century a Romanian dam holding 26 million gallons of polluted water and waste from a gold mining operation broke. It contained between fifty-five and one hundred-ten tons of cyanide and other heavy metals.
The toxic spill found its ways into Romanian, Yugoslavian, and Hungarian rivers and eventually breached the Danube River. Yugoslavia and Romania both saw (and smelled) the huge amounts of fish that were killed by this toxic spill. Hungarian reports indicated that the spill accounted for 1,367 tons of dead fish.
In addition, the cyanide wiped out all of the plankton in the rivers.
Although the cyanide dissipated relatively quickly the other heavy metals released by the dam break are still posing a threat.