Monday, 14 February 2011

Natural Skin Care Oils

By JD Files 
The science of skin care products has now evolved to "el Naturale." A lot of money has been invested and spent in perfecting the science of skin care botanically. Aromatherapy and essential oils are now incorporated into our daily beauty regime.Gone are the days of heavy oil based foundation and other oil laden skin products and this is especially good news for those of us that are prone to oily skin naturally.

Blind Box

Many kinds of the Standard Service Tools are using for fishing jobs, among other things shall be as follow as Blind Box.
The Blind Boxes are used when heavy downward jarring is required to dislodge a fish, or pushes something down the hole. It is flat on bottom and hardened to reduce wear and damage.
It is available in a range "1.57 inch O.D - 5.384 inch O.D" of sizes to suit the application.
As a 'Cutter Bar', it is made up below a piece of stem and rope socket then dropped in the well to cut wire downhole.
The purpose of the Cutter Bar is to cut the wire at the top of the rope socket of a toolstring which cannot be retrieved.
o Stem: select the length to suit well conditions. Heavy oil will require a long length of stem. Extreme caution must be taken in gas wells as very short lengths of stem (or just the rope socket and blind box) will travel very quickly.
o Blind_Boxes (BB): size (OD) to suit ID of tubing and OD of rope socket.
- Minimum size determined by distance from tubing wall to completely cover the wire diameter.
- Maximum size determined by fluid bypass round the
Blind box and by the nipple ID's
The worst possible case should be assumed with the toolstring lying against one wall of the tubing.
Diameter of blind box must be large enough to prevent the cutter bar from passing down the side of the toolstring.
Available Now! The drawings of Blind Box with size O.D:
1.57", 1.77", 1.97", 2.17", 2.28", 2.36", 2.52", 2.56", 2.76", 2.80", 2.87", 3.00", 3.15", 3.35", 3.50", 3.54", 3.74", 3.78", 3.86", 3.94", 3.978", 4.25", 4.33", 4.50", 4.53", 4.65", 4.92", 5.00", 5.384", 5.80", 8.00".

10 Inexpensive Outdoor Fixes To Help Sell Your Home

Many experts recommend updating your home's exterior to improve your chances to sell. Rightfully so! Most of the fixes you can do outdoors that will pay big dividends at closing are low cost and relatively easy to accomplish with a minimum amount of tools.
Several popular TV programs focus on improving the exterior appearance of homes. Often, properties showcased on these programs undergo amazing visual transformations after very small changes. We can use this attitude - more for less - to improve your own home.
First, a tip: remember our motto - more for less. We want to focus on small, inexpensive changes that impact the VISUAL appearance of your home. Fixing that broken sprinkler head in the back corner (things that will not be seen by visiting buyers) or spending big bucks for major improvements like adding mature landscaping will surprisingly yield less than you think.
1. Mow, Trim and Water
Perhaps the cheapest of all fixes - if you have a yard, you more than likely already have the tools. Plan on mowing 2 days before an open house (this gives the grass clippings a chance to dry up and blow away - sweep up whatever is left before your visitors arrive). Trim those hedges and cut away dead or unsightly tree branches. Also, if you tend to save money by not watering, now's the time to spend a little - just a couple good soaks a week can really make a difference. You can also invest in a bag of fertilizer. You really want your grass to be as green and nice as possible.
2. Keep the Yard Neat
Some buyers can be turned off by clutter in the yard. This can include:
Scattered toys - clean them up and ask your children to help clean and keep things tidy - maybe offer an incentive like a trip for some ice cream
Excess lawn ornaments - as a general rule, no more than 2 in the front and 2 in the back. Seriously. If you have more, time to start packing them up for the move.
Jumbled or neglected lawn furniture - if you're keeping it, put it in the shed or an off-site storage shed. If this isn't possible, do your best to clean it and keep it stacked or placed nicely. Of course, if you have a nice deck or patio and your furniture is in good repair, you can highlight the use of this space for entertainment - unfurl the umbrella for your open house.
Visible yard equipment - keep the mower, trimmer, shovel, rake etc. in the shed or in the garage, or if possible, in an off-site storage shed. Coil up that hose and keep it out of site (but at hand for watering).
Trash - give your yard the once-over - look for stray pieces of trash in and under the bushes, near the fences and wherever you feel trash might collect.
Animal waste - if you have a pet, really work hard at removing all pet waste. Buyers want to walk around the yard, and stepping in something is never good - even worse if they track it into your nicely cleaned house. This is a big one and only takes an hour or so of unpleasantness.
3. Freshen the Mulch and Remove Weeds
If you have beds with mulch, get a bag or two of fresh mulch - changing the washed-out grey of old mulch to the light-brown of new is a big visual improvement. Also, do your best to keep your planters weed free. You can save by staying away from weed killers or other chemicals - the last thing you want is brown, dying weeds. Two hands, a small trowel and some sturdy gloves are the way to go.
4. Flowers Sell
An oldie but a goodie - if it's an appropriate time of the year, plant some nice flowers in the front of the house. Go for rich colors - reds, purples, blues - and low-maintenance types. Impatiens are hardy, pretty and fairly inexpensive - that's just one suggestion. Hanging baskets or potted flowers on the porch create a warm and inviting entry to your home.
5. Wash that House
You'd be surprised at the amount of dirt a house naturally attracts and how much brighter it looks without it. If you have a hose nozzle, put it on the stream setting and give your house a bath. Even better, spend a few bucks on one of those spray-on, wash-off house cleaners - just make sure you get one suitable for your type of siding (read the product specifications before you buy). For a real revelation, borrow a pressure washer from a friend, just be careful you don't strip paint - we're trying to save, not start a month-long painting project. Speaking of which....
6. To Paint or Not to Paint
That is the question. On one hand, paint is fairly inexpensive and can make things really look fresh and new. On the other, some houses have LOTS of areas to paint, and painting one or a few only draws attention to those areas that didn't get treated. Here's where you have to use your own judgment. Exterior painting can really get to be a can of worms, especially when you have to deal with scaffolding and such. My rule of thumb is: if you can do it yourself without using expensive equipment (scaffolding) and do it quickly and relatively cheaply, go for it. If not, focus your energy on other areas.
7. Fix any Obvious Repair Issues
Things like broken shutters, missing shingles that are visible from the ground, badly dented or missing siding and all other random and general repairs should be taken care of if possible. Remember our motto: more for less. If something will take too long or cost too much, unless you feel it is a major visual distraction, best to leave it alone. I usually take a few circles around the outside of the house and just write down any negatives I can see. Go stand out at the curb and take a look - note anything out of order. Afterwards, I take the list and prioritize. I put the things that are big visual distractions or cheap/easy fixes at the top and begin there.
8. Wash the Windows
You don't need to get all the way up to the highest ones, but the ones on the ground floor should be washed. This will allow visitors to see into the house from outside and gives it the appearance of being more inviting as opposed to drawn curtains and closed blinds.
9. Ask the Neighbors to Help Out
Many don't even think about this, but make sure your neighbors know you'll be holding an open house - they might even help you with some word-of-mouth advertising. If your neighbors are thinking of having the drive resurfaced, doing heavy yard work, paining the exterior of the house, parking a garbage truck in the driveway, (etc. etc.) the day of your open house, politely ask that they do those things on another day. You don't want buyers to come away with any negative impressions about your home or neighborhood and neighbors are a big thing to new buyers.
10. Prepare the Home for Showing
Remove all personal items from the exterior of the house - those plaques that read "The Smith Family" should be taken down and packed away, same thing with personalized mailboxes - either replace them (you will have to if you want to take it with you) or remove any personal identification. Take a few minutes and sweep the porch, steps, deck, patio, driveway and sidewalk before visitors arrive - a good once-over is fine. Put your cars in the garage, or better yet, the street. If you have heavy oil or grease spots, try to get your hands on a degreaser - you can find them at your local home improvement stores. A little scrubbing will really improve the look of your driveway or garage. Finally, turn on all exterior lights, even during the day. If you have landscaping lights, turn these on as well. Do any last-minute pick-ups or put-aways, and then head out. It's always better to NOT be home when visitors come to look at your house - it feels like an imposition for many people. You want them spending as much time as they want in your home.
Congratulations - you have now set yourself up for success! After completing all of these things, you have greatly increased your chances of a sale and also increased your chances of realizing more money at closing. Many home buyers take visual appearance very seriously when choosing a new home. By making sure your house looks as nice as it can be from the outside, you have left a positive and lasting impression on your potential buyers.
Eric Rogers - REALTOR Century 21 Pro-Team Local Aurora IL Real Estate and Oswego Real EstateExpert

Eric Rogers - EzineArticles Expert Author

How to Eat Out, and Eat Healthy!

If you're trying to eat healthy, you probably know that it can be difficult when you want to eat out. You don't know how the restaurant has prepared the food, if they've added extra unhealthy ingredients, how much fat and how many calories it had to begin with, and so on.
Some restaurants have responded to the demands for healthier food items on the menu and this includes even fast food restaurants. However these choices are still limited and may not be the tastiest. So when you eat out, it's important to pay attention to the options you have and to make the healthiest choices you can.
You absolutely must take the initiative to eat as healthy as you can at a restaurant. There's no reason you shouldn't ask how a dish is prepared or what ingredients they use when cooking, if it doesn't state plainly on the menu. If the server isn't sure, ask them to ask the cook or chef. Typically they should be happy to share that information with you and if you ask them to omit certain things, they should be happy to accommodate. This is true for not just low fat requests but also low sodium, low sugar, and so on. They should want their customers to be happy!
Here are some additional tips to keep in mind when eating out and wanting to eat healthy as well: Look for options that are baked, grilled, or broiled. Anything fried, especially deep fried, should be avoided. And if you're not sure how the dish is cooked, ask!
You watch your portion sizes at home, so why not when eating out? Choose the smaller cut of steak and ask for a child's portion, or share a portion of something with someone. Forego that dessert or again, share! And ask for leaner cuts of the meat if possible.
For side dishes, steamed veggies are always better than just about anything. They're low in fat and low in calories. Avoid those that are fried, served with cheese or butter or a cream sauce.
Fat free dressing on the salad is always a good idea as well. Most restaurants have low fat or fat free salad dressings. If not, ask that they serve the dressing on the side so that you can control how much actually winds up on your salad.
Broth based soups are always better than creamy soups such as cream of broccoli. A vegetable soup is a healthy choice for an appetizer.
Forego the fries and opt for fresh fruit or a baked potato. If you don't see the option on the menu, ask if you can substitute.
When ordering Italian dishes, remember that tomato sauces are almost always healthier than the cream sauces or Alfredo sauce. Pesto sauce is also good, especially without meat.
For Oriental dishes, steamed rice and stir fried vegetables are a good option. Heavy sauces should be avoided and your meal should be prepared without heavy oil either. You can also opt for dishes that contain more vegetables and less meat as well.
If you must have dessert, try a fruit salad or sorbet. And if you must have something else, share your portion with someone!
And fast food restaurants can be the worst choices for healthy eating, but if you do eat there remember to watch your portions. It may seem cheaper to get the largest meal but remember that your price is not always the main consideration. And if you can find healthier alternatives to burgers and tacos such as salads and baked potatoes, choose those instead.
Eating out does present its challenges to those who are trying to eat healthy, but you shouldn't need to stop eating out altogether. Whether it's your schedule or just something you enjoy doing, you don't need to give up restaurants to be healthy. Use these guidelines and some common sense and you can eat healthy even when eating out.
For a guide to losing weight get your free report, "The Seven Personal Trainer Secrets to Weight Loss" visit

Anu Morgan - EzineArticles Expert Author

Quick Fix Tips For Treating Acne

Use an electric razor. This is because they move with the contours of your skin which will help you to avoid acne breakouts or making any existing acne any worse. If you prefer not to use an electric razor because they don't shave close enough to the skin for your liking, then you can instead use a single blade.
This will help to prevent the hairs catching on double edged blades which means that they are ripped out of the skin rather than shaved off. This then causes scabs to form which can then cause in-growing hairs. Acne can develop or worsen as a result of this. Ensure that you follow a very thorough cleansing routine and remove any cosmetics from your skin every evening.
This is particularly important if you have done any exercise and have residual perspiration left on your skin. Avoid heavy oil based make-up and instead choose products that are especially designed for acne-prone skin. Many products indicate on the label whether they are oil free or non-comedogenic. Metallic or shimmering products often include a mineral called mica which can irritate the skin and cause a bad reaction or acne outbreaks.
Products which are derived from coal tar, carmine and thick creamy blushers are also often very bad for acne sufferers and should be avoided. Matte lip colors are often better for your skin than thick glosses. The thicker the product and the higher the shine then the more comedogenic content that the product will contain. Eye shadows and creams formulated for the eye area can also be heavier and thicker and so have greater potential to block the pores on any other areas of the fact that it may come into contact with.
And, a unique method to Get Rid of Acne once and for all can be found on my site. Click here to find out how YOU can start re-balancing your body today and start the path to lasting clear skin.

Tidings on Energy Agreements Taking Place Across the World to Ameliorate the Energy Sector

By Andrewz Boas 
The China National Petroleum Company has penned an agreement with Shell to ameliorate the heavy oil in Canada. The president of the China National Petroleum Company Jiang Jiemin and Peter Voser, the chief executive officer of the Royal Dutch Shell has contracted in Beijing, to develop the oil and gas projects in Canada and to enhance the coal bed methane in China.

Peak Oil: Proof That It Is Imminent

Recently I was exposed to the concept of peak oil. This is the concept that at a certain point in time oil production reaches a plateau and then steadily declines. This concept can be applied to a single oil field, a country, or global world production. Every oil field follows a similar bell curve. As production begins, the bell curve steadily increases, eventually reaching an apex. This apex is called peak oil, and it does not last very long. Inevitably, production begins to decline, thereby creating the downward bell curve.
In the United States, peak oil occurred in 1970. That year, we produced 10 million barrels per day. The apex only lasted a few months and then production began to decline. Today we produce less than 5 million barrels per day and the decline continues unabated.
I knew that oil was a limited finite resource and that sometime in the future oil production would not meet world demand. I knew that day was approaching, but I always assumed it would not occur until at least 2015 and possibly 2025, and that by that time we would have a substitute. I was too optimistic.
I've read five books on the subject and countless internet articles. Trust me, I did my homework. My research led to three conclusions:
1. Within 3-5 years we will reach global peak production.
2. Within 3 years high oil prices will have begun creating economic havoc.
3. High oil prices will eventually collapse the economy.
The focus of my research tried to answer one question: When will we reach global peak production? The answer is soon (by my estimate within 3 years). Yes, new production is coming online, but there are a limited number of projects that will begin production in the next three years. These projects must offset annual production decreases at existing fields of at least 2%, and a projected annual demand increase of 2%.
To meet the expected 2% annual demand increase for the next three years (2006-2008), production must reach 90 million barrels per day. This will require an increase of 11 million barrels per day of new production (5.5 million barrels a day to meet new demand and 5.5 million barrels per day offset declining production at existing fields).
Can global oil production increase 11 million barrels per day over the next three years? Unlikely. What is much more likely is that peak oil production will never reach 90 million barrels per day, but something closer to 87. If you want an estimated time for peak production, my bet is 2007. This will also likely be the year when oil reaches $100 a barrel. We are literally on the precipice of $100 a barrel oil.
Let's look at the data:
Global demand was 77 million barrels per day in 2002. At the end of 2005, demand had risen to 83.5 million barrels per day. Thus, daily demand has increased on an annual basis of more than 1.5 million barrels per day since 2002. Furthermore, we can expect demand to increase 2% annually for the next three years. The result will be demand reaching 90 million barrels a day by the end of 2008.
Here are the calculations:
2006: 83.50 + 2% = 83.50 + 1.67 = 85.71
2007: 85.71 + 2% = 85.71 + 1.71 = 87.42
2008: 87.42 + 2% = 87.42 + 1.75 = 89.71
The problem we face is that to meet demand for the next three years we will have to annually produce an additional 3.4 million barrels per day to meet demand (1.7 million barrels per day for increased demand and 1.7 million barrels per day to offset production declines at existing fields. There are enough projects to meet demand in 2006, but 2007 becomes problematic, and 2008 becomes very unlikely.
Why is this happening? We stopped finding oil. Peak discovery was in 1965. Since then, discovery has steadily decreased. Buy 2010 discoveries will be paltry, likely only 3-4 billion barrels.
In 2004, 29.9 billion barrels of oil were consumed worldwide, while only 7.6 billion barrels of new oil reserves were discovered. Thus, we consumed 4 barrels for every barrel found.
In 2005, 30.4 billion barrels of oil were consumed worldwide, while only five billion barrels of new oil reserves were discovered. Thus, we consumed 6 barrels for every barrel found.
Perhaps the most significant evidence of peak oil is the decline of oil discoveries since 2000. For, without discoveries there will be no new production.
Year ------- Major Discoveries ---- Barrels Discovered
2000 ------- 13 ------------------ 17.9 (billion)
2001 ------- 6 ------------------- 10.4
2002 ------- 2 ------------------- 10.9
2003 ------- 1 ------------------- 7.7
2004 ------- 0 ------------------- 7.6
2005 ------- 1 ------------------- 5.0
With so little oil being found, there is not going be enough new projects to meet future demand.
Approximately 95% of all oil has been found. Thus, only about 100 billion barrels of conventional oil are left to be discovered (3 years supply). Of this 100 billion, there is likely only one or two major fields that will produce more than 100 thousand barrels per day. World demand has become so huge that this is a drop in the bucket.
There are approximately 1.3 trillion barrels of oil reserves claimed by oil companies (this does not include the Tar Sands in Canada or the extra heavy oil in Venezuela, which are considered unconventional). This number is inflated because OPEC countries over-estimate their total in order to get larger production quotas. It is projected that it will take 35 years to consume all of the remaining reserves. However, most likely, we only have 20 years of plentiful supply (oil available for sale on the global market). Once we get towards the end, there is going to be very little exporting.
Plentiful supply does not mean that demand is being met. For, demand will exceed supply long before we run out of plentiful oil, thereby disrupting the supply chain and causing economic havoc. This will likely occur this decade, although reaching peak oil does not necessarily mean there will be shortages. As we reach peak oil, the price will soar thereby depressing demand. This will allow supply and demand to find an equilibrium thereby reducing or possibly preventing shortages. This kind of market mechanics is the reason many economists dismiss peak oil in the near term. They expect the high price of oil to reduce demand and allow other energy sources¯that are currently not economical¯to provide our energy needs.
Peak production is also evident by the fact that production is either declining or on the precipice of decline in every country except Canada, Venezuela, and the Middle East (where the majority of reserves remain). Soon the Middle East (Canada and Venezuela's increases are minimal on an annual basis) will have to increase production dramatically on an annual basis to meet world demand. At a certain point this will not be possible and global peak production will be reached.
U.S. Government economic planners currently project global peak production to be around 2015. This seems way too optimistic to me. The current excess worldwide production capacity is estimated to be only 1.5 million barrels per day. In fact, only one country, Saudi Arabia, claims any excess production capacity. With future demand requiring at least 3.4 millions barrels per day of new production each year, this leaves new projects to meet demand.
Most researchers agree that peak oil is imminent. Here is a list of forecasts:
2005 ---------- Ken Deffeyes (Oil Geologist/Author "Beyond Oil")
2006 ---------- T. Boone Pickens (Oil Executive)
2006-2007 ----- A. M. S. Bakhitari (Iranian Oil Executive)
2006-2007 ----- Matthew Simmons (Banker/Author "Twilight in the Desert")
2007 ---------- Colin Campbell ((Oil Geologist/Author "The Coming Oil Crisis")
2007 ---------- Anonymous Pemex Oil Geologist (Oilcast #28)
2008 ---------- C. Skrebowski (Petroleum Economist)
Before 2010 --- David Goodstein (Cal Tech Professor/Author "Out of Gas")
After 2010 ---- World Energy Council
2016 ---------- EIA (US Government Energy Information Administration)
After 2020 ---- CERA (Cambridge Energy Research Associates)
In Saudi Arabia, which claims to hold a quarter of all global reserves (conventional oil), six giant fields produce 90 percent of their oil. All of these giants are old and likely past their peak production. In 1982, OPEC countries stopped releasing production and reserve numbers on a field by field basis. In effect, they became secretive and have remained secretive. For this reason, we can only estimate (guess) when each field will reach peak. What we do know is that they have had ongoing technical problems with each of their maturing giants. They have depended on water injection for decades and are now experiencing recurring high water cuts. In essence, they are pumping too much water out of the ground instead of oil.
From what I read in "Twilight in the Desert" by Matthew Simmons, the Saudis are struggling just to maintain production, let alone have the ability to increase it. According to Simmon's analysis, he thinks it is likely that one of their giants is on the precipice of decline. If they lose one giant, they will likely go into production decline as a country. Whereas, U.S. Government planners are expecting Saudi Arabia to increase their production to meet worldwide demand, even the Saudis have claimed that the best they can do by 2009, is 12.5 million barrels per day.
Production Decreases:
Currently 116 large fields produce nearly 50 percent of production. Most of these fields are old and in depletion. The fields below show the common theme of production declines at the world's giant fields. (numbers are production in barrels per day)
Oseberg (Norway) -------- 1994 (800 thousand) ---------- 2002 (200 thousand)
Brent (North Sea) -------- 1984 (450 thousand) ---------- 2001 (80 thousand)
Prudhoe (Alaska) -------- 1981 (1.6 million) ---------- 2000 (500 thousand)
Romashkino (Russia) -------- 1970 (1.6 million) ---------- 1998 (250 thousand)
Forties (North Sea) -------- 1977 (500 thousand) ---------- 2000 (50 thousand)
Samotlor (Russia) -------- 1978 (3 million) ---------- 2001 (300 thousand)
Daqing (China) -------- 2000 (1 million) ---------- 2006 (600 thousand)
Canterell (Mexico) -------- 2003 (2 million) ---------- 2009 (600 thousand)
Norway (All Production) -------- 2000 (3.1 million) ---------- 2005 (2.5 million)
U.K. (All Production) -------- 2000 (2.9 million) ---------- 2005 (1.7 million)
USA (All Production) -------- 2005 (5 million) ---------- 2010 (3.5 million)
When you look these numbers you can understand why the annual production decline is at least 2%. Once we get to 2010, the annual decline will be even higher. The reason for this is because we stopped finding giant fields after the 1970s. Most of the large producing fields today are old and mature and declining.
Estimated Production Increases (Next 3 years):
Currently there are only a limited number of new projects around the world scheduled to begin production in 2006-2008. If these projects cannot reach 11 million barrels per day, then will have likely reached peak oil and demand will not be met.
Location ------------------ Potential New Production in barrels per day
Deep Water --------------- 2-4 million.
(Brazil, Gulf of Mexico,
Angola and Nigeria)
Saudi Arabia --------------- 1-2 million.
Azerbaijan --------------- 400-800 thousand.
Canada --------------- 250-300 thousand.
Kazakhstan --------------- 200-500 thousand.
Iran --------------- 200-400 thousand.
Libya --------------- 100-500 thousand.
Russia --------------- 100-500 thousand.
Abu Dhabi --------------- 100-300 thousand.
Iraq --------------- 100-300 thousand.
Venezuela --------------- 100-200 thousand.
Australia --------------- 50-150 thousand.
Indonesia --------------- 50-150 thousand.
Congo --------------- 50-100 thousand.
Vietnam --------------- 50-100 thousand.
When you compare these new projects (5 to 10 million barrels of potential production) in tandem with global demand and production decreases over the next three years (11 million barrels), we are headed for peak oil production. I think production could reach 87 million barrels per day, but 90 million is unlikely. Every project would have to go perfectly, or else Saudi Arabia would have to make up the difference.
It is difficult to find information about projected production for future projects. One source I found, Jeff Rubin, the Chief Economist at CIBC Word Markets, predicts new oil production to be 3.5 million barrels per day in 2006, 3 in 2007, and 3 in 2008. If you add these up, he is expecting 9.5 million barrels of increased production over the next three years. If his numbers are right, the key for reaching peak oil before 2009 will be the net depletion rate. If this rate stays close to 2% then peak oil will not occur until after 2008.
Another source I found was Oilcast #28 on This audio file includes an interview with a PEMEX engineer. He has a few insightful comments. 1) Peak oil will be somewhere between 85 and 90 million barrels per day. 2) The Saudi's are already producing at maximum capacity. 3) It is unlikely the Saudi's will produce much more than what they are currently producing.
If new projects do not meet demand, that leaves Saudi Arabia to fill the void. The producer of last resort. They claim that they will be able to increase production 2 million barrels per day over the next three years. I have my doubts.
In 1978 (the last year Aramco was ran by International Oil companies such as BP), Aramco publicly released reserves on a field by field basis that totaled 110 billion barrels in proven reserves. In 1979, Aramco changed from foreign stewardship to Saudi Aramco (The Saudi Royal Family). In 1982, after the formation of OPEC, the Saudis increased their reserves to 150 billion barrels, although they had not discovered any new fields. Today, they claim 260 billion barrels in proven reserves, yet have never provided any documentation to substantiate their claims.
What we do know about Saudi reserves is that no oil has been found in any significant quantities since 1978 (90% of their production is coming from old fields). In addition, we know that they have produced more than 75 billion barrels since 1978. So, if we are to believe their numbers, Aramco should have stated their reserves at 335 billion barrels (260 + 75) in 1978! This number is so inflated as to be ridiculous. The correct number is closer to 125.
When you put this smaller reserve number in perspective, you realize that Saudi Arabia is not the producer of last resort. In fact, it's possible that they have already passed peak production, which for them was 10.5 million barrels per day in 1980.
All OPEC countries have lied about their reserves in order to have larger quotas. It is considered normal business practices for OPEC members. Proof of this transgression was recently found in Kuwait. Petroleum Intelligence Weekly recently reported that Kuwait has 48 billion barrels of reserves, and not the 99 billion that they have claimed publicly. I would bet this is the same for all OPEC countries. This begs the question, how far off are the OPEC claimed?
Some people point to the huge unconventional reserves in Canadian Tar Sands as a producer or last resort for the global market. Current Tar Sand production in Canada is about 800 thousand barrels day and is increasing about 10 percent per year. They expect to produce about 2.5 million barrels a day by 2015.
There is a large quantity of Tar Sands in Canada. Current proven reserves are estimated to be 350 billion barrels. Potential reserves are projected to be as much as 2 trillion barrels. The problem is that it takes a long time to increase production of unconventional oil. Also, as more oil production comes online after 2015, production declines elsewhere will be intensifying. Even if Canadian Tar Sands production increases to 5 million barrels per day by 2025, this won't have much impact on global supplies.
Another producer with large potential production is Venezuela. They have potentially 1 trillion barrels of reserves in extra heavy unconventional oil. Their heavy oil production should increase dramatically. As oil prices increase, there is going to be a lot of investment in Venezuela. We should see 1-2 million barrels per day of heavy oil production sometime in the next decade. Like the Canadian Tar Sands, it will be a slow process to expand production.
Peak oil could be delayed until 2010, with small increases in 2008 and 2009. If this happens then we could see something like the following:
2007: 87 million barrels per day
2008: 88 million barrels per day
2009: 89 million barrels per day
However, demand will not be met in 2008 and 2009 and prices will be high, somewhere between $80 and $100. This is the best case scenario, with peak oil reaching around 90 million barrels per day in 2009 or 2010. On a positive note, if we don't have war in the Middle East, oil production could remain in the 80-88 million barrels a day range until around 2015, when there will begin a large drop off in production.
One factor that could delay peak oil beyond 2007 is curtailed demand from high prices. It looks like demand is going to increase less than the forecasted 2% in 2006. This could conceivably extend the peak to 2009. However, depletion could easily increase more than 2% annually, making any demand increase difficult to reach and thereby inducing peak oil.
Anyway you look at, peak oil is imminent. Demand is going to increase about 1 million barrels per day annually the rest of this decade and depletion is going to fall about 2 million barrels per day. Sometime soon it's not going to be possible to produce 3 million barrels of new oil in a calendar year. Let me make it easy to understand. This year we will produce about 3 million new barrels worldwide. Last year we only found 5 billion barrels, the least amount in decades. If we developed all of these 5 billion barrel reserves and they came online in the normal 3-7 year period, they would not produce 3 million barrels of new oil, but around half that much.
One thing I have learned from researching peak oil is that oil shortages are not inevitable in the short term. Oil companies could meet global demand for the rest of this decade and beyond. This possibility could occur if prices are high enough to significantly decrease demand. Once gasoline hits $5 to $7 per gallon, less people will be driving and demand will go down. This could prevent shortages. However, once peak oil is reached, there is nothing that will prevent high prices.
If prices are going to increase dramatically once we reach peak oil, at what point do these high prices collapse the economy? What can the economy absorb? $100 a barrel? $200? All of my research leads to one conclusion: we're screwed. We have become utterly dependent on cheap oil and it's about to get expensive. Initially, inflation is going to skyrocket as businesses increase their prices to pay their shipping/delivery bills. Consider how many delivery trucks are needed to move goods in this country. Consider global transportation costs for imported goods. I don't see how we can get through this without economic havoc.
The magnitude of the approaching oil crisis is beyond the average person's comprehension. It is such a huge problem that it is difficult to conceptualize the ramifications. For instance, how do we commute to work when it costs too much to drive? How do we pay for our food, gas, and electric bills when they double and triple from increased energy costs? It's mind boggling. All I know is that the world is about to change dramatically and know one seems prepared.
If you think there is a substitute for oil, there isn't, at least not one that can maintain our way of life. Substitutes are so lacking that the situation is dire. Ethanol and other biofuels are promising, but the volumes of production are unlikely to meet demand. Solar and wind are good choices, but they will take years of investment to have an impact. Hydrogen must be converted into an energy source, which requires energy.
It will be decades until an efficient conversion process is found. Nuclear is unlikely because of the huge cost and time required to build plants. Liquefied coal is also a long term possibility, but it will require new plants and billions of dollars of investment.
In the United States, our economy is incredibly dependent on oil. Approximately 95% of transportation fuel comes from oil, and currently there is no suitable replacement. We will eventually find one, but it does not exist today. We have become dependent on cheap oil and it is about to become expensive and in short supply. We've been making plans for a world that is no longer going to exist in its current form.
The way I see it, our only option is to start over. We have to create a new world based on less energy requirements. Although I am not excited about the prospect, I do see an opportunity to build a sustainable civilization. The shift towards this new way of life is not a decade away, but years. We are helplessly in the final months of cheap abundant oil.

The History of the World - The History of Essential Oils

Six thousand years ago, just as man had started to learn how to farm lands, the importance of oils had already been known to the Egyptians. A papyrus dating back to 1555 BC had been found to contain recipes that could be use for remedy of certain ailments. When the tomb of Tutankhamen was opened in 1922, it was also found to contain jars of oils.
The use of essential oils was clearly documented in the Ebers papyrus which was discovered in 1817. This 870-foot long papyrus dates back to 1555 BC and contains more than 800 herbal recipes for different ailments. They used myrrh extensively in embalming their dead. The Egyptians also grew herbs not just for their oils but also to burn them as part of their offerings to their deities.
Since Egypt had close connections with the Greeks, the use of the essential oils and aromatherapy in general had reached them. Aesculapius was one of the few Greeks who, early on, began to use herbs and oils in treatment of different maladies. Hippocrates even went to Egypt to study the different uses of essential oils. Not to be left behind by the Greeks, the Romans improved the make-up of essential oils. They imported ingredients from the Arabia and India and used these oils for their baths and for massages. They would also diffuse oils in their buildings. The Arabs were the ones who were able to refine the distillation process of the oils. They were able to distil alcohol and were able to do away with heavy, oil-based perfumes. The Aztecs in South America also used herbs and oils for various ailments. They would extract the oils from the numerous plants that grow in their forests. The interest in essential oils died down during the dark ages. It was re-discovered when Dr. René-Maurice Gattefossé accidentally discovered the healing properties of Lavender oil. It was his research work that started people's interest in the clinical use of essential oils. Today, various people swore by the effects of different essential oils - from Lavender to Ylang-Ylang to Chamomile. These oils have helped countless people to heal from wounds, headaches, and even depression.
Rosita Alicea is the President of Mijas Incorporated, the brains behind Essential Feel Goods. She is an expert in Aromatherapy, Essential Oils and Spa Treatments both for men and women.
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Non-Conventional Resources Draw in More Focus

The power production capacity of the United States and Europe has increased in leaps and bounds. From 2009, the economies of these two have been uplifted by the non-conventional resources rather than the conventional sources like oil and coal. According to the news report declared, in the forthcoming years the world would produce more amount of electricity from the alternative energy resources and the conventional resources like fossil fuels and coal would be antiquated down the road. The studies made by the Renewable Energy Policy Network and the United Nations Environmental Program released that, more than 60 percent of the electrical capacity of Europe is produced through renewable energy and roughly 50 percent of the electrical potential of United States were produced from the newly constructed renewable energy projects. The renewable energy investments across the world have experienced several imbalances and many public and private energy investments companies in China have increased their rate of energy investments.
The renewable energy investments have made incredible transformation across the globe and more than 50 percent of the total energy produced across the world is manufactured through the alternative energy. The year 2009 was considered as golden age for the Chinese renewable energy sector since the energy investments produced during the year in China, has outmatched the energy investment of the United States. Indefinite number of polices was formed by most of the countries to advocate the clean energy investments which has been increased the energy investments twofold in the past five years. Twoco Petroleums Ltd, oil and natural gas drilling company recently reported that, the company has commenced a couple of gross horizontal oil wells in the War spite area of Alberta. Twoco Petroleums Ltd has embarked on a pilot production programme, which would continue for nine days and the primary oil well would averagely produce 65 barrels of oil per day at 5 percent water cut.
The secondary oil well would be producing more than 53 barrels of oil per day at 17 percent water cut and total cost for the project including the drilling expenses, cost of equipments for each well, would be nearing 800,000 US dollars. Twoco Petroleums conceptualizes that, cost of drilling on the Sparky heavy oil lands in the near future could reduce substantially, with the usage of multi-well drilling program. Twoco Petroleums Company will move forward with the production monitoring process for the two wells, aiming to optimize the production from these oil wells and plan to drill more oil wells in the Sparky heavy oil lands and other lands owned by the Twoco Petroleums.
In this modern world the usage of oil has become essential and the oil wells for sale has emerged as the leading and most lucrative business and details about Oil Wells for Sale and oil well companies for sale can be obtained here. Investors and purchasers need not go in search of Oil wells for Sale.

Oil Absorbent Pads - Clean Spills Up Fast With Oil Absorbent Pads

Oil spills can be quite dangerous, which is why you want to take care of them as soon as you can. Read on for a way to clean them up quickly and economically, before any damage can occur.
Oil absorbent pads can help you clean up oil spills in a hurry
So what are the consequences if you don't manage to clean up that oil spill quickly, possibly by using high quality absorbents such as oil absorbent pads to clean up oil spills?
Well, oil spills can damage your facility, stain clothing, lead to slip and fall accidents, and that's just for starters. Through the use of oil absorbent pads, however, these things can be prevented. Especially slip and fall accidents can be avoided, which means you stay safe and so do your employees, customers, vendors, and anyone else walking into your facility.
As it turns out, you have quite a choice of different sizes and type of absorbent pads in order to clean up the spills that are specific to your business. So choose the one that is most likely to be needed for your situation:
1) Heavy oil absorbent pads
Heavy oil absorbent pads are made to strictly absorb oil. This means that the pads will not absorb water, which means that they can also be used for cleaning up oil spills in water.
2) Medium weight pads and light weight pads
Medium weight pads are ideal for those smaller spills while light weight oil absorbent pads are suitable for those light spills.
3) Rolls
For those not sure what size spills may occur, there are rolls. You can take as much or as little of the oil absorbent material as you need. This results in you not having to waste material. It will also save you money.
The good news is that you do have options that will allow you to clean up an oil spill quickly. You can have it gone before anyone has a chance to slip on it or before any part of your business can be damaged.
And although this may not seem as important as injured employees and ruined merchandise or property, clothing can be preserved as well. When oil gets into clothing, it can be rather difficult to get out. Even if it does not alter the color of the clothing, it can leave dark rings that detergent can never get out. Oil absorbent pads can help keep this mess from happening.
So when you're looking to be prepared for a range of oil spills, try the oil absorbent pads that will work for you. To choose the right ones, simply evaluate the types of oils in your facility and what it takes to clean them up.
You should also have heavy duty oil absorbent pads as well as rolls to handle different sizes of spills. It can be hard to predict how big a spill may be, so it is best to be prepared by having a range of absorbents on hand.
Want to know more about oil absorbent pads? Get valuable tips and the latest news about absorbents and other environmental safety products on Travis Zdrazil's Safety Maintenance News blog and get his free newsletter too. Travis is an expert on environmental safety products and has supplied businesses with products to aid in meeting EPA and OSHA requirements for more than 10 years.
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Size of Spill in Gulf of Mexico Is Larger Than Thought

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A boat sailed through crude oil that had leaked from the Deepwater Horizon wellhead in the Gulf of Mexico.
NEW ORLEANS — Government officials said late Wednesday night that oil might be leaking from a well in the Gulf of Mexico at a rate five times that suggested by initial estimates.

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In a hastily called news conference, Rear Adm. Mary E. Landry of the Coast Guard said a scientist from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration had concluded that oil is leaking at the rate of 5,000 barrels a day, not 1,000 as had been estimated. While emphasizing that the estimates are rough given that the leak is at 5,000 feet below the surface, Admiral Landry said the new estimate came from observations made in flights over the slick, studying the trajectory of the spill and other variables.
An explosion and fire on a drilling rig on April 20 left 11 workers missing and presumed dead. The rig sank two days later about 50 miles off the Louisiana coast.
Doug Suttles, chief operating officer for exploration and production for BP, said a new leak had been discovered as well. Officials had previously found two leaks in the riser, the 5,000-foot-long pipe that connected the rig to the wellhead and is now detached and snaking along the sea floor. One leak was at the end of the riser and the other at a kink closer to its source, the wellhead.
But Mr. Suttles said a third leak had been discovered Wednesday afternoon even closer to the source. “I’m very, very confident this leak is new,” he said. He also said the discovery of the new leak had not led them to believe that the total flow from the well was different than it was before the leak was found.
The new, far larger estimate of the leakage rate, he said, was within a range of estimates given the inexact science of determining the rate of a leak so far below the ocean’s surface.
“The leaks on the sea floor are being visually gauged from the video feed” from the remote vehicles that have been surveying the riser, said Doug Helton, a fisheries biologist who coordinates oil spill responses for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in an e-mail message Wednesday night. “That takes a practiced eye. Like being able to look at a garden hose and judge how many gallons a minute are being discharged. The surface approach is to measure the area of the slick, the percent cover, and then estimate the thickness based on some rough color codes.”
Admiral Landry said President Obama had been notified. She also opened up the possibility that if the government determines that BP, which is responsible for the cleanup, cannot handle the spill with the resources available in the private sector, that Defense Department could become involved to contribute technology.
Wind patterns may push the spill into the coast of Louisiana as soon as Friday night, officials said, prompting consideration of more urgent measures to protect coastal wildlife. Among them were using cannons to scare off birds and employing local shrimpers’ boats as makeshift oil skimmers in the shallows.
Part of the oil slick was only 16 miles offshore and closing in on the Mississippi River Delta, the marshlands at the southeastern tip of Louisiana where the river empties into the ocean. Already 100,000 feet of protective booms have been laid down to protect the shoreline, with 500,000 feet more standing by, said Charlie Henry, an oil spill expert for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, at an earlier news conference on Wednesday.
On Wednesday evening, cleanup crews began conducting what is called an in-situ burn, a process that consists of corralling concentrated parts of the spill in a 500-foot-long fireproof boom, moving it to another location and burning it. It has been tested effectively on other spills, but weather and ecological concerns can complicate the procedure.
Such burning also works only when oil is corralled to a certain thickness. Burns may not be effective for most of this spill, of which 97 percent is estimated to be an oil-water mixture.
A burn scheduled for 11 a.m. Wednesday was delayed. At 4:45 p.m., the first small portion of the spill was ignited. Officials determined it to be successful.