Wednesday, 26 January 2011

The Effects and Consequences of Global Warming

Global warming has effects and consequences on all walks of life. The consequences of global warming can be seen in the atmosphere, weather as well as the health of individuals.
Comments on article "The Effects and Consequences of Global Warming"
NameViews and CommentsDate
Gemmait woz ok !1/24/2011
SamanthaGlobal Warming Is NOT REAL! Werrrrrrrrrrrdd Uppppp1/20/2011
Ezra Johnwell my university teacher told us that we have to stop using fuel, air cons etc.1/17/2011
Pooja Guptai think we should plant more and more trees and use electric cars, trains11/27/2010
Xavier DavidHave to grow more trees, Vehicles should come down, increase of vehicles Carbond dioxide increases in the atmosphere. Public transport should be encouraged. Stop discharging waste in the ocean. Oils spill in the ocean. Removing oils from the ocean. Aquatic animals gets disturbed. Increasing concrete jungle. Control in population.11/23/2010
Zacharia Challoit can not be avoided11/22/2010
Littlenanoi think this is bad im just an 11 year old girl and im doing a project about global warming and so far i think this is bad :)11/8/2010
Abhijith TomyIt is so super10/30/2010
Sandra Rivieregood10/11/2010
COURTNEY.hi how are you this fine day?
Well, i just happen to think that your website here is just astonishing actually. I am quite astonished at the astonishing stuff on this astonishing page you have here.
Hayley Wiliams and Rob Pattinson are my friends.
Rickygood and important5/19/2010
Mizukiwe're all gonna die...5/10/2010
Alex Moraglobal warming is finishing with our Earth, and we should all work as a team to stop it!4/26/2010
HopScoth1223333Thanks for your help.4/1/2010
Potatoei is back and now it is killing my polar bear stop global warming thank you3/31/2010
ChrisAwesome article. I gathered lot of stuff for my presentation.

thanks very much...
this info proved very important to me
Samah Ibraheem1:Warming would lead to health problems, especially on the respiratory system of man

2;That the increase in temperature lead to increased harm and damage to animals

3;And leads to damage to plants
ENAS NABAI think that global warming is a global phenomenon and we must find satisfactory solutions for them, despite global efforts to resolve this problem, but the effects are still present and a major reason for this problem is the greed of the industrialized countries and launch of harmful gases in disregard of 0 results11/11/2009
NOUR ALHIMONYHow to reduce the phenomenon of Ctararalaalmi
The protection of forest cover
Provide FAO's Forestry Department to help countries protect their forests. It provides them with needed information, advice and technical support to manage their forests responsibly.

A major priority is the organization to provide assistance to local communities in forest areas to gain more money and to overcome poverty and hunger, in ways that are environmentally sustainable. It is easy to see how this work in the fight against global warming.
Promoting wood products
The organization does not help countries protect their forests, but also helps them develop the wood products sector have. The use of more wood products can bring economic benefits to poor communities in forest areas, but it can also help reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

For a single moment. What does this mean? Here's a scientific explanation is simple. The trees absorb sunlight, air, water and nutrients from the soil to grow, do not need any extra fuel to the production of timber. Required, while the production of materials like bricks, steel and plastic to large quantities of fuel. Thus, the use of wood instead of materials that consume large amounts of energy effectively reduce the amount of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere.
Keeping the wood fires burning
The world needs to reduce global warming, to find alternatives to fuels like coal, natural gas and oil, since the burning of these fuels spews billions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year.

The wood is one of the most renewable energy sources. Did you know that wood energy is the primary source of energy for more than Alymiliri people, in particular in developing countries.

Of course, burning wood also releases carbon dioxide, but when trees are planted to replace the wood used for fuel, they absorb carbon dioxide means that carbon cycles through the atmosphere without accumulating, and so is zero impact on global warming. The solution is to make fuel wood production sustainable. This is what's forestry department has the Organization to assist countries to achieve.
CommentaryIs very important to address this problem because it requires a global problem to a lot of importance and we should think about how to alleviate the problems caused by global warming, perhaps many ways such as reducing car fumes, factories or oil in general because it was also noted in paragraph facing many problems health, economic and climatic
The question for the students how to curb this phenomenon
Yasmeen AkhmaysOne of the major effects of climate change is the melting of ice glaciers at the north and the south poles which will cause a rise in water level in the ocean and will directly affect the coastal areas and islands in the world. Many coastal cities are threatened of drowning under water as a result of the global warming phenomenon. In addition to that, the rain patterns in the world will be altered which will affect the agriculture worldwidw. Although we are not responsible for it , for sure we will be affected by it.11/4/2009
Nadia Al AdhamiGlobal warming is the heating of the earth because of humans. It's caused by a rise in CO2 in the atmosphere which causes the greenhouse gases to retain more heat. (Without these gases our planet couldn't hold in heat) Our global temperature has raised about .7 degrees in the last century, a change that would take thousands of years to occur naturally. One result is the melting of glaciers, which will eventually cause flooding.11/2/2009
Nadia Al AdhamiThe earth gets warm and then drops, then gets warm again, all over a few hundred thousand years at a time. As the magnetic poles change naturally, so will our climate. Also, every time a volcano goes off, the earth cools a little bit. You can say that the earth has a way of cooling itself when it gets too warm. Take Yellowstone for example, if that super volcano went off, the world would experience a volcanic winter and it would be like starting from ground zero again - no one would be worried about global warming.11/2/2009
Nadia Al AdhamiGlobal warming has effects and consequences on all walks of life, and it is a global phenomenon with a number of effects on the global level. Global warming has various effects, ranging from the effects to the atmosphere to the economical, environmental as well as the health life of human beings.

Warming Influence Result
* Impact on the ozone layer, and increasing the ozone gas.
* Occurrence of earthquakes, environmental pollution, hurricanes, and volcanoes.
* The low level of snow.
* Climate change, glacier retreat, flooding and landslides, and flooding of Lake Ice.
* Sea-level rise.
* Increase in the levels of evaporation, and the impact on the weather.
* Increase the number of periods of drought.

Economy * Impact on all spheres of economic.
* Spend more on vaccines.
* An increase in the cost of infrastructure.
* Increased costs of coastal defense.

Installations * Damage in the various transport infrastructure, bridges, ships, break the runways, roads, and institutions.

Humans * The emergence and spread of various viral diseases.
* Health effects on humans, increase the problems for people who suffer from heart problems and respiratory problems.
* Increased mortality.

Plant * Decline in agriculture.
* Damage to many agricultural crops and draining.

* Impact on birds.
* An extinction.
* Immigration.
MayadahI see that is Global Warming has other effects on the health of human beings. Global Warming results in a drastic rise in temperature. This rise in temperature will finally result in an increase in the mortality rate of people. A higher temperature causes problems to people with cardiovascular problems. In extreme cases, people are known to have died of heatstroke. People may also have heat exhaustion problems. Respiratory problems are also known to arise out of a high temperature.11/2/2009
MayadaI Think thats the bige problem all mankindforced in any part of the wor ld buts dont affected only for human its take avery thines will be changein different thinges like animales , human , water, air ...etc life we will do things to stope that11/2/2009
MayadaI Think thats the bige problem all mankindforced in any part of the eord m but its dont affected only for human its take avery thines with bige cjange in different thinges like animales , human , water, air ...etc11/2/2009
Ayshah JubranGlobal warming has various effects, ranging from the effects to the atmosphere to the economical, invironnmental as well as the health life of human beings.And the oxygen supply might run out or the air might heat up to the extent of melting polar ice, raising sea level and inundating coastal cities.and the pollution has consequences for being the immediate hazard of poisoning individuals.
Finally global warming causes a decline in agriculture due to the rise in temperature.
the temp. is resing day by day n hanin all bad effects stepts should be taaken to stop global warming n its horrifying effect.
NohmiCan you tell me the sources you used to write this article?9/10/2009
JadaThank you for the good helped me with my essay about global warming.7/22/2009
Jjcool picture5/29/2009
Chuchuwhat is being done about it?5/28/2009
Bobi fink dat i luv chicken while im eating corn on the dog !.. hahahaha loolage x5/11/2009
Vaishnavivery nice...4/27/2009
Lov2kissfatgsIlove fat chicks that like global warming if you want me come to macanicsburg ILL at the park any day4/21/2009
Jakeuse cars all you want who cares you people are crazy for thinking we cant use cars4/21/2009
JoeI love I want to die from il4/21/2009
MS33Global Warming is effecting everything what can we do to help our planet to get better4/21/2009
Michellewow i didn't know global warming had that many consequences!4/21/2009
NilGlobal warming is global phenomenon with the numer of effects such as environmental,economical, health life of human beings3/19/2009
Bart017global warming,causes,effects and how to prevent global warming2/12/2009
Vonn Salvagervery very informative! i like it1/21/2009
AlexanderI think that you should add more about the effects and causes of global warming than just the ice melting. It would be very helpful.1/19/2009
[.]good buh too many confusing words. could make one for teenagers to understand a bit more12/29/2008
WillThis article says that Carbon Dioxide prevents photorespiration. If plants take in CO2 to grow then wouldn't the increase in CO2 increase plant growth?9/25/2008
MichaelMaybe we'll need to live it to learn that we need to do something about "9/24/2008
Molly Kthx this helped me lots with my homework9/21/2008
Micheli think it is interesting but i will say that they need to put more details about the consequences of the global warming6/4/2008
VeggieeI love brussels for life!!4/29/2008
HoriThis info is for my project thnks alot Roy D'Sliva but also alot of crap if u dont understand it4/14/2008
ReidCO2 isn't bad for plant life!4/7/2008
MarieHey there may I request to write about the effects of global warming in the government?!
The article you made is nice but there's no effects on the government was cited.
Condaleeza Riceblow up the ozone layer releaseing the gases2/12/2008
Bobthis artile in no good for recasch2/4/2008
C.A.Hey this is Christina Aguilera. I seen your picture and I also seen Britney's comment. I have to agree with her because I want to smooch your body too !!!11/29/2007
Ceceit's you ! oh baby we've got to stop meeting like this you know every time i look up something on global warming you pop up. oh roy you big hunk of sexiness i learned a little bit from you . it's great that i get to see your face one more time i hope i don't see it again because it hurts that i can't see you in person god i'm lovin that face roy well DUCES! love me11/29/2007
Narutomarcolovei agree wit britney spears11/16/2007
BIg BoObnice article but i think ur to smart 4 mi11/16/2007
Britney SpearsThis is a very informing article your so hot i wanna smooch your body.11/15/2007
Mianice site has alot of information11/7/2007
Kilim scared for our childrens future, and upset that no one is taking this even remotley seriously...9/24/2007
DardenGood thing, advertise more!!9/23/2007
BobsterBanana jumbalya pancake mix8/29/2007
Making A StandSomeone once said that man was the main cause of global warming. So, it is our duty as man (emphasizing) to restore our world to it's natural state. We caused it, let's make it better!8/12/2007
MissyWho says that global warming isn't real? Aren't the evidence already presented? The frequent hurricanes the last year, hotter summers, colder winters. What else do people need to be persauded that Global Warming is real? Let denial go and face the truth. Someone we can do something about it.8/12/2007
Y. YangThank you for providing with us, the most recent facts on global warming. If we can arise people of the awareness of global warming, we can come together to make a change. I appreciate you and whoever for allowing us to view this information.8/12/2007
AnonymosI reckon that the goverment should have a level or limit of energy use a day, if anyone cross the limit should pay a penalty of fine or be jailed.7/15/2007
SaOH GLOBAL WARMING, TOO BAD, lets do somenthing: do not use TO MUCH THE CAR OK LOVE YA

Damaged Oil Rig Spewing 42,000 Gallons of Oil Per Day into Gulf of Mexico

Originally, it was believed - or at least reported - that the damaged oil rig off the coast of Louisiana was not an active oil leak. The slick that had formed was reported to have been residual oil from the rig itself and the wellhead was believed to be stable. Of course, that has since been proven not to be the case. The wellhead is actively spewing oil into the Gulf of Mexico at a rate of 42,000 gallons per day. And while that sounds like an enormous amount of oil, it's actually fairly manageable by environmental disaster standards.

Officials and clean-up crews are battling high seas and difficult conditions as they try to contain the growing spill. It's difficult to determine whether or not the slick will make its way toward land or if the majority of the oil can be collected and cleaned up at sea.

At this point, the primary objective is closing the wellhead and stopping the flow of oil into the Gulf. Deep-water robotic submarines are on the scene, trying to close valves designed to stop the flow of oil from the well. Unfortunately, the valves are located at least a mile below the surface and it is unknown whether shutting the valves will stop the oil. If the well suffered extensive damage, it may take months to drill relief wells to try to stop the flow of oil.

In the meantime, the environmental damage is only going to grow. Even if the oil doesn't make direct landfall, it's going to have an immediate impact on the marine life in the area as well as birds and other animals. It will likely be some time before officials have a firm handle on the extent of the damage to the local ecosystems.

By Buzzle Staff and Agencies
Published: 4/26/2010

Oil Pipe Cleaning

The crude oil pipeline operator companies are employing advanced technologies to minimize potential losses, due to the leakages of crude oil from the pipelines. The strict environmental laws are prompting these companies to monitor the pipelines vigilantly. It is said that the corrosion of the pipelines is the main cause of 55 - 60 percent of oil leakages and environmental pollution. Most of these pipelines were installed long back, and today, we are depending on these aging pipeline networks to carry precious fuels from the oil fields or the oil drilling sites to the refineries. Oil pipe cleaning can help pipeline operators in prolonging the life of the pipeline infrastructure and maintain it.

Pipeline Ruptures and Oil Spills

Over the period of time and depending on the chemical properties of the liquids transported through the pipeline, various substances get deposited in the pipeline. These deposits may form due to the accumulation of the substances such as heavy hydrocarbons; wax and paraffin or organic substances such as asphaltene, amines and glycol. Minerals such as iron sulfate etc., may accumulate in the pipelines in the form of mineral scales. The deposits resist the flow of the crude oil or the fuel and increase the internal pressure in the pipeline. Water accumulated in low spots inside the pipeline corrodes it. The corrosion weakens the wall of the crude oil carrying pipeline. The more than normal internal pressure targets a spot of the wall of the pipeline, weakened due to the corrosion, and ruptures the pipeline. The oil spills from the ruptured pipeline causing environmental pollution.

Oil Pipe Cleaning Methods

Mechanical cleaning and advanced chemical cleaning are two standard methods used to clean a pipeline.
  1. Mechanical Cleaning: This method removes deposits by mechanical pigging. The special equipments called 'pigs' are inserted into the pipeline. Pigs are equipped with 'cutting instruments' to deal with the deposits. Its task is to swab deposits from the inner wall of the pipeline until zero amount of deposits is collected at the pig receiving station. But there is no guarantee that the pipeline will be 100% clean at the end of this procedure.
  2. Advanced Chemical Cleaning: The industry is preferring advanced chemical cleaning methods for pipeline cleaning. This method is a combination of chemical cleaning and mechanical pigs to remove a greater volume of deposits and debris in short time. Advanced chemical cleaning uses liquid cleaners (chemicals) diluted by adding water, diesel, methanol, iso-propyl-alcohol, etc., to it. This cleaning solution is pushed through a pipeline by pigs and tons of deposits and debris is removed. Pipeline cleaners are chosen for their neutral pH, deposit permeating and penetrating power and specifications regrading cleaner solution. Advanced chemical cleaning is a very effective method of removing deposits from the pipelines
Nowadays, advanced technologies such as magnetic flux leakage and optical inspection are used in oil pipe cleaning. Optical inspection allows the technician to visually inspect the interior of the pipe in 3-dimensions thus increasing the effectiveness of the cleaning process.

Scientists and researchers are doing there best to come up with alternative-fuels, that can one day replace the hydrocarbon-based fuels. They have investigated the biofuels and were successful in demonstrating the use of ethanol as a fuel. Biofuels still have to go a long way before they could help us in minimizing our dependence on the crude-oil-based, fuel economy.

In the United States of America, the Pipeline Integrity Bill makes it mandatory, that the liquid carrying pipelines be inspected every five years and those transporting natural gas every seven years. The countries in Europe and all over the Globe are taking steps to follow this trend. By using advanced methods for oil pipe cleaning, the pipeline operator companies are doing their share to protect the environment. Oil pipe cleaning improves the speed of the movement of crude oil through the pipeline by removing the deposits. This leads to improved productivity, reduced pipeline maintenance costs and naturally, increased profits. The most important benefit of the oil pipe cleaning is that it makes the environment safe by minimizing the chances of oil spills.

Marine iguanas hit by oil slick

The unique marine iguanas of the Galapagos islands have been devastated by the aftermath of an oil spill, scientists say, losing almost two thirds of their number on one island since a tanker ran aground in January last year.

Writing in today's Nature, the scientists say that the high mortality rate in the wake of what was seen as a minor accident suggests that wildlife is more vulnerable to oil spills than previously thought.

Sixty-two per cent of the marine iguana population on Santa Fe have died in the year since the tanker Jessica ran aground on San Cristobal, another part of the archipelago, on January 17 2001.

The tanker spilled about 3m litres of diesel and bunker oil after the accident, but strong currents dispersed most of the slick, so few marine animals were directly affected.

By the time the remnants of the slick reached Santa Fe, it was reduced to one litre of oil being washed ashore for every metre of beach, a level considered low by international standards.

Yet the team reporting in Nature, led by the Princeton University biologist Martin Wikelski, said it was hard to explain the sudden decline of iguanas by other means.

Before the spill, Mr Wikelski and his colleagues spent years studying marine iguanas on Santa Fe and Genovesa, an island to the north.

After the spill, which did not affect Genovesa, there was no mass deaths of iguanas there.

One of the most likely reasons for the iguanas' suffering, Mr Wikelski theorises, is that the animals depend on specialised bacteria in their stomachs which break down the marine algae they feed on.

Even if the iguanas themselves are not vulnerable to low levels of oil contamination, the bacteria may be.

"Our findings warn against complacency over apparently low-impact contamination after environmental disasters in other wildlife areas, such as the arctic national wildlife refuge in Alaska," the scientists say.

The marine iguanas of the Galapagos are the world's only seagoing lizards. There are thought to be between 200,000 and 300,000 on the islands.

Charles Darwin, whose voyage to the Galapagos helped shape his speculation about the origins of species, noted the ubiquity of the iguanas, and what he saw as their ill-favoured appearance.

He wrote: "It is a hideous-looking creature, of a dirty black colour, stupid, and sluggish in its movements."

© Guardian News & Media 2008
Published: 6/5/2002

Environmental Issues List

As grateful as we should be, for the advancements in science and technology, and therefore the rapid growth of the human species in all manner. We are overlooking a very grave problem that is looming over us, and is beginning to make its presence felt amongst us, that of environmental problems. We have taken a lot for granted, because of the benign nature of the earth and environment. But the fact that it has gone too far is now being noticed by the world. What has contributed to this problem that is threatening survival on this planet? Find out in the environmental issues list presented here.

List of Environmental Issues 2010

The list of environmental problems presented here, provides a broad overview of the looming dangers over mankind and this planet. This environmental issues list contains problems, not only of the current year, but those that have been present since a long time. Only the seriousness of the effects of these issues is being experienced now, like never before.

Oil Spills
Though oil spills are not a new phenomenon, the recent scale at which they have affected the environment cannot go unnoticed. Oil spills are perhaps the biggest environmental issues in America as of now, with the recent BP oil spill that affected the country in April. This was one of the worst oil spills recorded in American history. Recently, an oil spill also occurred in the Arabian Sea, off the coast of Mumbai, India. Oil spills damage the prime source of water for various cities, the marine life, and even affect birds. Indirectly they cause severe harm to the environment and are perhaps, one of the most important environmental issues to reckon with.

Climate Change
The high amounts of air pollution due to the development of several industries, water pollution and due to discarding of toxic waste in the oceans. Besides the aforementioned oil spills, the high rate of deforestation, are also contributing towards a drastic climate change. These wide spread misuse is causing global warming like never experienced before. Erratic changes in weather, brutal blizzards and floods, vicious heat waves, are now affecting lands where such phenomena were not so common.

Population growth and the subsequent overpopulation is another one of the global environmental issues that has affected every nation. With the advancement in medicine and technology, life expectancy has increased, which is a boon in its own way, but has adversely affected the environment. The earth is now overpopulated, and because of the other environmental issues that are affecting it, the earth is not going to be able to sustain this excess for very long. Also, though family planning measures have been strictly implemented in several countries, they are still not as effective to control the rapidly increasing population.

Resource Depletion
Due to overpopulation, and the relaxed manner in which different natural resources are utilized, there is a serious lack of resources that can be used by us human beings now. As has been noticed, the rising fuel prices are due to the lower amounts that are now available. Several countries face huge water problems where some houses get water only for an hour a day, and where the ability to provide water to people depends on the erratic rains that elude people who solely depend on it as a source of water. Electricity is another serious problem in certain countries that is not available to everyone. Due to the continuous depletion of all these natural resources, experts have predicted that survival on planet earth is only going to get further challenging and difficult. The least we can do is try and adopt some energy saving methods so that it is efficiently utilized, evenly distributed and made available to everyone.

Pollution is another one of the top environmental issues that is having a horrific impact on the planet and us human beings. Water pollutionair pollutionacid rain due to air pollution, land pollutionnoise pollution, are all adversely affecting the environment and people. Some countries are so polluted that children are born with birth defects, such as mutations of different body parts, while several others develop such defects later in life, due to their exposure to different types of pollution.

Land Degradation
The fast paced urban life has had a deep impact on the land that we live on. For one, to accommodate the rising urban population, a lot of deforestation has taken place. This not only affects the climate, but also destroys the natural habitat of other life forms. Leading to the increasing number of extinct animals and endangered animals, and thereby disturbing the natural cycle of the environment. Agricultural practices such as intensive farming, overgrazing, use of harsh pesticides, render several agricultural lands useless. Furthermore soil erosion, contributes to land degradation and its subsequent effects on humankind.

Nuclear Issues
The use of nuclear energy has led to the threat and instances of emission of nuclear radiations that have harmed the environment in unimaginable ways, causing immense environmental pollution. Hiroshima and Nagasaki are still recovering from the effects of atom bombs that were dropped in these cities. Though the scale of nuclear radiation affecting people is not the same, it is still slowly showing its effects in different manners on us human beings and is, in fact, increasing in today's day and time.

This was just a broad overview of the current environmental issues that are plaguing life on this planet. The environmental issues list is never ending, every action of ours is contributing to different environmental problems. The least we can do is understand these problems, and try and make an effort on our part to reduce the suffering of mankind and nature. If every one of us tries to make a difference, the overall effect will be huge and will lead to a better life for all living species on this planet.

By Puja Lalwani
Published: 8/19/2010

BP Oil Spill Could Benefit Africa’s Economy

The BP Oil spill has resulted in massive losses for BP International which has resulted in BP having to sell of assets in countries around the world. This is promising for South Africans businesses as if they are able to purchase some of these valuable assets, the South African economy could benefit from the money coming in.
BP has experienced multi-billion dollar losses due to the BP Oil Spill that has been dominating environmental news around the world over the last few months. As a result BP international has been forced to make any important and consequential decisions in order to survive the massive hit to their market value.

BP CEO Tony Howard has had to accept responsibility for the oil spill and has subsequently been asked to step down as BP CEO and will be replaced by Robert Dudley who has stated that BP oil will be making some important decisions in the near future, all geared at the recovery of BP International.

One of the most significant decisions made by the new BP CEO to date has been the sale of over $30 billion worth of international assets, all of which will go to the recovery of the $60 billion loss experienced by BP Fuel in recent times.

The good news for Africa and South Africa in particular, is that this might give up and coming businesses on the African continent a chance to grab hold of a stake in the massive industry of oil which dominates economies around the world. Many major BP international assets are based in Africa and if South African businesses are able to acquire a certain amount of these BP international assets, it could result in a healthy boost to the South African economy.

BP international assets will be on sale in numerous African countries including Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania and Malawi. Let’s hope that South African businessmen and women are wise enough to get their hands on some of these BP Oil assets and assist in the recovery of BP Oil internationally. 

By Dave Ackermann
Published: 8/4/2010

Oil Spill Causes More Than 2,500 Birds to Die

by Reno Charlton

Oil spilled from a Chinese freighter after the ship collided with a Polish vessel in the Baltic Sea off the coast of Sweden has caused the deaths of more than 2,500 birds.

The crew of the Fu Shan Hai quickly evacuated as the freighter began sinking, but returned a few hours later to minimize the amount of oil spilled.

Hundreds of volunteers are currently working to clean up the spill.

Approximately 1,500 of the dead birds inhabited the nearby Danish island of Christiansoe. The remainder lived along the Swedish coast.

"This accident (shows) the risks involved in shipping," said World Wildlife Fund - Sweden Secretary General Lars Kristoferson.

"It is important that the entire Baltic Sea be designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area," said a Fund spokesperson. "That would make it possible to regulate international shipping (in the Sea)."

© 2003 Animal News Center, Inc.

By Animal News
Published: 6/17/2003

Major Oil Spill Causes Problems in the San Francisco Bay

By Anastacia Mott Austin

Questions are being asked about the underreporting of the amount of oil spilled in this week’s San Francisco Bay Area accident between a container ship and the Bay Bridge.

The ship, the 810-foot Cocso Busan from South Korea, had just left the port of Oakland and was moving out to sea when it collided with the Bay Bridge in a heavy fog.

Initial reports from the ship itself were that 140 gallons of bunker fuel had leaked into the water. However, a later assessment revealed that in fact 58,000 gallons had spilled. Bunker fuel is one of the heaviest, least-refined petroleum products, and pedestrians noted the noxious "gasoline-like" smell that permeated the air around the bay.

The ship’s pilot, Captain John Cota, and crew members were all tested for alcohol levels, which were negative. The captain stated that the heavy fog caused visibility problems, contributing to both the crash and the difficulty in assessing the extent of the spill.

The California Department of Fish and Game and the Coast Guard sent out absorbent skimmers to prevent the oil slick from spreading, but the inevitable tidal movements have already carried some of the oil to shorelines as far as 20 miles from the spill.

Local criticism is being leveled at the Coast Guard for not accurately reporting the scope of the leak. City of San Francisco officials still were being told it was a small spill 12 hours after the incident. A representative for San Francisco mayor Gavin Newsom, Nathan Ballard, told reporters, "We would have responded differently if we had accurate information from the get-go."

But the Coast Guard responded to the critique, saying they didn’t report the new figures because "We were kind of busy...figuring this stuff out," said United States Coast Guard Captain William Uberti to the press, adding, "We mobilized as if it was a big spill right away."

As of Thursday, the day after the accident, only about 9,500 gallons of the 58,000 gallon spill had been cleaned up. A privately-owned cleanup company, O’Brien’s Group of southern California, has been hired by the ship’s owners to help out. Barry McFarland, a spokesperson for the company, has told reporters that there are eight vessels employed in the cleanup effort, with 18,000 feet of "containment boom," and 115 employees working on the beaches. When asked how long it might take to finish the task, McFarland said, "It's too early to tell any timeline. We'll be here for quite some time."

Wildlife groups remain very concerned about the effect of the spill on local birds and sea animals who live in the bay waters.

The environmental group Save the Bay told the press it had been inundated with volunteers offering to help with local birds who have been spotted covered in oil.

"It’s just heartbreaking," said local bird lover Sally McFadden, 49, who volunteered to help. "This is peak migration season for birds, and all the birdwatchers are excited about it - so it's at a particularly bad time," said McFadden to reporters at The San Francisco Chronicle, adding, "It’s disturbing."

California governor Arnold Shwarzenegger toured the area and declared it a state emergency to help release state funds for the rescue and cleanup efforts. "How does a ship, with that much space available, how does a ship hit the bridge?" asked the governor.

Responded Uberti, "That’s what we’re investigating. That shouldn’t have happened."

Oil Spills - Effects

There are various incidents of oil spills everyday however, oil spills in very less amounts do not cause much harm. The problem arises when there are various incidents of oil spills that are on a large proportion, causing the spilling of millions of tons of oil into the seas, rivers and bays. None can forget the Exxon Valdez oil spill that occurred in Alaska, on March 24, 1989. One of the disastrous environmental damage caused by the humans, the Exxon Valdez spilling lead to the release of nearly 40 million liters of oil into the sea! No doubt, the victims of the oil spill were the marine animals that thrived in that area.

Effects of Oil Spills
Oil spills that occur near a coastline, cause more harm than the oil spills that occur into the open sea because marine life habitat is usually more dense in the areas near the coastline than in the middle of the ocean. Oil spills can occur due to various reasons like, careless handling of the oil pipelines spread under the seas, through which the oil is transported to various countries. Also, any sort of accidental or natural disaster leading to damage of the oil storing tankers, barges, pipelines, refineries, etc., can cause oil spills. The oil spill effects on the marine life is decided by the type of oil spilled, location of the oil spilled and the breeding season of the habitat in that area. The main problem with oil is that once it spills, it spreads far and wide in the ocean, thereby increasing the damage. When the marine animals consume the oil spilled in the water, the oil gets into their body and many die due to suffocation and poisonous effects of the oil.

Effects of Oil Spills in the Ocean
Depending on the type of oil, the oil can stick to the body of the fish and marine animals, forming a thick layer. Here is a discussion about oil spill effects on marine life:

  • Damage to the feathers of the bird, destroying their beneficial properties.
  • Fur seals get affected by oil spills, as the oil sticks to their fur. Whales and dolphins remain safe from any external affects, as their slippery body does not allow the oil to stick.
  • Drowning of marine animals if the oil sticks on the flipper is observed.
  • Ulcers and other internal problems in the body leading to diseases and death.
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss problems in birds, wildlife and marine life.
  • Problems of the digestive system leading to fragile body.
  • A sense of alienation among the community members, as the smelling ability of the seals and other marine animals is lessened or badly affected. This makes them feel lost as they are unable to detect their fellow beings.
  • Reduces the bird's ability to fly, as the feathers get tangled in dense mass of thick layers of oils.
Oil Spill Effects on the Environment
Oil spill effects on the environment are as follows:
  • Damages the red blood cells and hinders the smooth blood circulation in animals.
  • Liver failure in marine mammals.
  • Damage to fish larvae and young fish.
  • Poisoning of young ones of the marine animals, as they consume mother's milk.
  • Destruction of coral reefs, seagrass and mangrove habitat, that are the major sources of ecological balance in the oceans.
  • Respiratory problems and skin irritation leading to aggressive or dull behavior of the animals.
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